Benchmark Research full custom essay
Major depressive disorder among incarcerated men in prison
PICOT statement: In incarcerated men, how does interpersonal psychotherapy compared to
pharmacotherapy help reduce the rates of major depressive disorders during the confinement
Majority of confined men in prison systems have been reported to experience high rates
Imprisonment causes emotional disturbances and psychological imbalances.
Individual demonstrates episodic sadness and loss of interest in various activities around them.
The major depressive disorder affects men's thinking and alters their behavioral practices. While
in jail, men lack the freedom of expression socialization and interaction with the outside world
(Shereff, Palmer, & Cannon, 2017). This rift contributes significantly to the development of
depression that progressively advances with time.
In most cases, confinement interrupts men's ego and personality; they become mentally
disturbed and start to express symptoms of depression in various aspects. Interpersonal
psychotherapy (IPT) has been reported as the most effective evidence-based intervention that
could minimize the incidences of major depressive disorders in incarcerated men. IPT is a time-
limited and focused approach in treating depression through the improvement of a person's
quality interpersonal relationships and social functioning. The approach provides for strategies of
resolving the problem in different methods that cover all symptoms of depression.
Criteria for selection of articles
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The university library was used as a database to conduct searches for articles. The choice
of articles employed specific measures that ensured conformity with the research question. The
requirements provided for the elimination of articles that did not meet the criteria and setting
aside those that are supportive and responding to the PICOT question. Random selection and
sampling methods were used for inclusion and exclusion of various materials for study. First, the
articles had to be published in peer-reviewed to ensure that the board of publishers certifies them,
and their researches are reliable and authentic. The materials had to be published within the last
five years to ascertain that the information presented is current to contemporary healthcare
The searches were conducted using keywords from the PICOT that included major
depressive disorder, interpersonal psychotherapy, incarcerated men, and the prison system. The
main focus was on articles that displayed depression and interpersonal psychotherapy as titles.
The criteria also focused on articles that presented an adequate sample size in the collection of
data. The authors of the articles must be experts and experienced in the field of psychiatry for
their information to be considered reliable and authentic. The research designs used in the
articles should be aligning in similarities for ease of analysis and interpretation. The articles had
to satisfy ethical considerations and respect for the rights of human participants and approved by
the Institutional Board Review (IBR). The search focused on pieces that address the topic under
discussion and circumnavigates around the population of men confined in the prison system.
Synthesis of the literature
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1st article: Edel, M. A., Blackwell, B., Schaub, M., Emons, B., Fox, T., Tornau, F., … &
Juckel, G. (2017). Antidepressive response of inpatients with major depression to adjuvant
occupational therapy: a case–control study. Annals of general psychiatry, 16(1), 1.
Subjects: The study utilized a population sample of 114 inpatients diagnosed with major
depressive disorders in a case-controlled study for occupational therapy. The study involved both
male and women in a pilot study to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy
in reducing depressive symptoms (Edel et al., 2017).
Methods: The participants were assigned to either a standard OT group and an active control
group that played board games. After that, the HAMD-21 scores were assessed as the primary
outcome parameter after 3–6 weeks.
Key findings: Occupational therapy proved efficacious in the short-term treatment of depression
through increased interactions for OT groups that favored male patients.
Rationale: The article focuses on occupational therapy in reducing depressive episodes, which is
the center of focus of the PICOT question.
2nd article: Pardini, J., Scogin, F., Schriver, J., Domino, M., Wilson, D., & LaRocca, M.
(2014). Efficacy and process of cognitive bibliotherapy for the treatment of depression in jail and
prison inmates. Psychological Services, 11(2), 141.
Subjects: The study utilized 37 participants who were recruited from a metropolitan jail located
BENCHMARK: LITERATURE REVIEW 5
Method: The study used random controlled trials whereby 17 inmates were assigned to the
treatment group that received 4-weeks bibliotherapy and 20 others in the delayed-treatment
Key findings: A statistically significant difference between both groups indicated that cognitive-
behavioral bibliotherapy is effective in controlling symptoms of depression (Pardini et al., 2014).
Rationale: The article answers the PICOT in the context reducing depression in jail and prison.
3rd article: Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Connell, N. M. (2014). The mental health of
prisoners: Identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American
journal of public health, 104(12), 2328-2333.
Subjects: The study utilized surveys that were conducted in 2004. It focused on a population of
inmates in state and federal correlational facilities in determining barriers to mental health and
discontinuity of medication (Reingle Gonzalez, & Connell, 2014).
Method: Dual-stage stratified sampling design to select 18,185 prisoners who were interviewed.
Survey logistic regressions were conducted with the use of Stata version 13.
Key findings: A significant population of inmates does not receive treatment for mental health
conditions. Most screening procedures do not result in pharmacotherapy interventions.
Rationale: The articles emphasize on the attention to mental health in prisons hence supportive
in responding to the PICOT question
4th article: O'Sullivan, D. J., O'Sullivan, M. E., O'Connell, B. D., O'Reilly, K., & Sarma,
K. M. (2018). Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample. PloS one,
BENCHMARK: LITERATURE REVIEW 6
Subjects: The study utilized a population of 101 adult male prisoners from four medium security
prisons in Ireland in investigating the relationship between attributional style and depression.
Method: The study applied a cross-sectional design in the collection of data.
Key findings: An attributional style of depression was found significant to the prison population
through provision of an understanding of treatment options for depressive symptoms in prisons.
Rationale: The article is about depression and attributional approach to control its symptoms;
thus, it complements the PICOT searches.
5th article: Yoon, I. A., Slade, K., & Fazel, S. (2017). Outcomes of psychological
therapies for prisoners with mental health problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 85(8), 783.
Subject: A total of 37 studies were selected for analysis. The studies focused on psychological
therapies for mental health conditions in prisons.
Method: It employed randomized clinical trials in the study. A systematic review of
psychological therapies that involved a meta-analysis approach.
Key findings: It was identified that cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based
therapies are most effective in prisoners for depression and anxiety outcomes.
Rationale: The article aligns with the PICOT in the context of depression, imprisoned
population, and strategies to reduce depressive episodes while in jail.
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The articles do not specifically focus on the male population only as per the PICOT. They
generalize their application hence lack the principle of specificity. The studies employed
different sample sizes and were conducted in various settings, therefore, raising questions of
applicability of interventions in other universal contexts. Most articles were reviews of the
previous studies, including surveys that present level II evidence; thus, their accuracy and
validity are challenged (O'Sullivan et al., 2018).
The studies presented different approaches to managing depression for the imprisoned
population. Each article argued in support of its interventions and strategies. They provide
sufficient evidence and a significant statistical backup. Controversies arise based on which
specific methods are to be trusted and most suitable for reducing depression for incarcerated
All articles were addressing depression as the title with each of them outlining evidence-
based practices and interventions to reduce depressive symptoms. In all the articles, population
samples were obtained from prison facilities. All the articles were relevant and supportively
responding to the PICOT question. However, each article used a different study design. The
methods of data collection and data analysis tools used were different in almost all studies
(Yoon, Slade, & Fazel, 2017). All articles recommended distinct strategies in reducing
depression in inmate men.
Areas of further study
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It is evident from the reviews that depression is real among jailed men. It is known that
there exists limited attention to mental health within prison facilities. Majority of individuals
suffer as an approach of punishment for their crimes, which brings about mental suffering and
long-term depression. It has not been identified on who to implement the evidence-based
intervention of depression in the prisons given that they are not psychiatric facilities (Jalali et al.,
2019). Away from imprisonment, the causes of depression in inmates could be unknown for an
The various types of depression and their manifestations require to undergo further
studies to enable early identification and management of depression. The interventions and
strategies of reducing major depression require further investigation to collectively develop the
most outstanding joint practices of care in depressed inmates. The pharmacological approach for
depression needs recurrent studies to updated medication combination in treating depression.
BENCHMARK: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Edel, M. A., Blackwell, B., Schaub, M., Emons, B., Fox, T., Tornau, F., … & Juckel, G. (2017).
Antidepressive response of inpatients with major depression to adjuvant occupational
therapy: a case–control study. Annals of general psychiatry, 16(1), 1.
Jalali, F., Hasani, A., Hashemi, S. F., Kimiaei, S. A., & Babaei, A. (2019). Cognitive Group
Therapy Based on Schema-Focused Approach for Reducing Depression in Prisoners
Living With HIV. International journal of offender therapy and comparative
criminology, 63(2), 276-288.
O'Sullivan, D. J., O'Sullivan, M. E., O'Connell, B. D., O'Reilly, K., & Sarma, K. M. (2018).
Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample. PloS one, 13(2),
Pardini, J., Scogin, F., Schriver, J., Domino, M., Wilson, D., & LaRocca, M. (2014). Efficacy
and process of cognitive bibliotherapy for the treatment of depression in jail and prison
inmates. Psychological Services, 11(2), 141.
BENCHMARK: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Connell, N. M. (2014). The mental health of prisoners: Identifying
barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American journal of public
health, 104(12), 2328-2333.
Shereff, D., Palmer, R., & Cannon, P. (2017). Every reader her book: Creation of a therapeutic
library at a women’s residential treatment facility. Journal of Hospital
Librarianship, 17(1), 42-52.
Yoon, I. A., Slade, K., & Fazel, S. (2017). Outcomes of psychological therapies for prisoners
with mental health problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of
consulting and clinical psychology, 85(8), 783.