Research Article Critique Custom Essay

Research Article Critique Custom Essay

Research article: Hassankhani, H., Zamanzadeh, V., Rahmani, A., Haririan, H., & Porter,
J. E. (2017). Family Presence During Resuscitation: A Double‐Edged Sword. Journal of
Nursing Scholarship, 49(2), 127-134.

Overview of the study

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is presented as an emergency response to
cardiovascular disorders whereby the chest compressions and ventilation are initiated
immediately to stimulate blood supply to the brain tissue, especially during cardiac arrest. It is
done to enhance survival and quality of life within the shortest time possible. Family presence
during CPR has raised serious discussions based on its impact on the procedure. It is deemed to
bring about a supportive effect during CPR. It also boosts the nurses' attitude and perspective of
the patient (Vincent, & Lederman, 2017). However, family presence might have a destructive
effect on the CPR process. There exist different opinions surrounding this issue based on the
perspectives of resuscitation team members.
The authors did not explicitly provide the research questions; however, the inferred
questions include; what is the experience of resuscitation team members with family presence
during CPR? What is the importance of family presence during CPR? Does family presence
distract resuscitation team members?
According to the author, family presence during CPR could present challenges to the
resuscitation team, considering it is an emergency procedure. Thus, it should be evaluated based
on its composition and number in the room. That is understanding the type of bond and
relationship to the patient, which might dictate the expression of attitude and concern. Presence

of large numbers of family members could cause distractions and discomfort to the health

Objectives and result

The authors' initial objectives were to examine the experiences of resuscitation team
members associated with family presence during CPR. They intended to evaluate and analyze the
member's opinions and views on the issue. They aimed to determine the impact of family
presence on patients and health professionals. They also purposed to explore the negative aspects
and supportive aspects of family presence in resuscitation rooms.
A semi-structured interview was conducted among 21 resuscitation team members. The
results identified that family presence involves destructive presence in the light of cessation of
resuscitation, interference in resuscitation, disruption to the resuscitation team's focus, an
argument with the resuscitation team, and adverse mental image in the family (Hassankhani,
Zamanzadeh, Rahmani, Haririan, & Porter, 2017). However, some members felt like it holds a
supportive effect to the families through enhancement of trust in the resuscitation team,
collaboration with the resuscitation team, alleviating the family's concern and settling their
nerves, increasing the family's satisfaction, and reducing conflict with resuscitation team

Research methods
Literature review

The authors provide an extensive literature review coupled with the introduction part.
The literature review conformed with the topic under study. It presented the findings of previous
studies that are relevant to the current clinical issue. It offers background information on the

research and defines a clear roadmap that could be used to guide the investigation process. It
supports the topic and highlights the hypothesis or aims of the study in the context of a
conceptual framework. The literature review is written critically; it presents the strengths and
weaknesses of previous studies hence valuable to the current research. It is appropriately
balanced; it provides pieces of literature that supports and those that differ with the position of
the authors (Hassankhani, Zamanzadeh, Rahmani, Haririan, & Porter, 2017). The review is
sufficient; by employing several sources. It outlines a combination of current and classic
references. However, some of the references cited are beyond five years ago.
Research currency and relevancy

The research is current; it is addressing the recently emerging issue in healthcare. In
recent times, family members have claimed to be allowed access to the resuscitation rooms to
witness the transition of their loved ones. There have been increased concerns about the impact
of their inclusion. Mixed reactions have been registered from the side of family members and the
line of resuscitation team professionals. Diversity of opinions and perspectives among them has
derailed determination of an official position that could satisfy the interests of all individuals and
preserve the standards of quality care.

Method of study

The research is qualitative, which utilized an interpretative phenomenology design in
examining experiences of resuscitation team members on family presence during CPR. This type
of study is centered on ideas, opinions, views, and insights of individuals regarding the topic
under discussion. In this case, the researchers used semi-structured interviews as methods for
data collection. They also employed audio-recordings that assisted in the transcription of

information for analysis and interpretation (Hassankhani, Zamanzadeh, Rahmani, Haririan, &
Porter, 2017).

Population sample

The researchers utilized a sample size of 21 resuscitation team members that included 12
nurses and nine physicians. Purposive sampling was used that involved selection criteria for
participants. For the selection, it required members with a bachelor's degree and two years of
clinical experience in resuscitation team involving family presence. The participants were
selected from the six hospitals in a largely populated city in Iran, where CPR was conducted with
family present. The sample size was adequate and appropriate for the study. It involved the
nurses and physicians who play a critical role in the resuscitation procedure (Hassankhani,
Zamanzadeh, Rahmani, Haririan, & Porter, 2017). Their insights and experiences offer first-hand
information, which is valid and reliable. They offer level I evidence due to direct interaction
during data collection.


The research sounds practical in its application to the clinical settings. It synthesizes the
experiences in the context of responding to the study objectives. The findings could be utilized
by health organizations to formulate policies and guidelines that should be followed while
conducting CPR in the emergency departments. The study could provide a considerate
understanding among family members and guide their presence in the resuscitation rooms. The
research could improve professionalism among the resuscitation team while handling the patients
and by extension, the families. It may assist in aligning the attitude of both the family members
and health professionals in the resuscitation. The author suggests that hospitals should alter their

policies regarding family presence during CPR to align with professional principles and
guidelines. In my opinion, I believe the results could be integrated from the top organization
level through specialty associations who have the responsibility to design newly recommended
principles in practice settings to guide the delivery of high-quality care.
Improvement of the study

In my opinion, the research could have been improved to provide for a comprehensive
analysis of experiences from all stakeholders. The study focused on the resuscitation teams only.
It also utilized a slightly small sample size; which included individuals from the two professional
fields. This indicates opportunities for improvement.
The scope of the research should be increased to accommodate the experiences of the
family members. Thus, the objectives of the study could as well encompass the family responses
on the issue and not the professionals alone. This could offer extensive evaluation and broaden
the results in the efforts to initiate an effective change in the emergency departments. The
number of participants involved could be increased to expand the scale of comparison for
reliability, accuracy, and validity purposes. The inclusivity of resuscitation team members should
be extended to accommodate other providers such as paramedics and emergency medical
technicians who participate in the procedure. Integration of questionnaires and application of a
cross-sectional survey study could enhance the quality of research through the inclusion of large
sample size and analytical statistics for high levels of evidence compared to interviews that are
subject to manipulation.


The writing

The writing in this research is apparent and straightforward, and it is precisely and
authentically breaks down its ideas in an organized manner. The concepts presented in the study
are easy to understand and relate because they circumnavigate around a current healthcare issue.
The authors are consistent with the opinions, views, and ideas that build the foundation of the
research. The writing is supported by reasonable facts that are valid and accurate; it aligns with
previous studies and supported by other authors.

Further research

The study does not comprehensively consider both sides involved in the health issue,
which creates a gap that could be filled by further research studies on the subject under
discussion. More investigations should be initiated to assess and characterize the experience of
family members observing the CPR of their patient. The study established an understanding of
‘Double-Edged Sword' on the impact of family presence; thus, further research should be
conducted on a specific implication either the supportive presence or destructive presence.


The study aligns with the research questions and objectives. It examines perceptions of
the resuscitation team over family presence during CPR. An appropriate study method is applied
that is supportive of data collection and analysis. It selected an excellent setting for study with an
adequate sample. The issue of family presence during CPR involves several factors. Despite the
positive impact of family presence, it might cause a significantly destructive effect on the
resuscitation team. Since it is an emergency and a life-saving venture, it could not be appropriate
to engage any chances of distractions in the resuscitation rooms.



Hassankhani, H., Zamanzadeh, V., Rahmani, A., Haririan, H., & Porter, J. E. (2017). Family Presence
During Resuscitation: A Double‐Edged Sword. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(2), 127-134.
Vincent, C., & Lederman, Z. (2017). Family presence during resuscitation: extending ethical norms
from paediatrics to adults. Journal of medical ethics, 43(10), 676-678.