Obesity in Adults full essay
Obesity has been a global health problem; recently, there has an increase in the number of
individuals with obesity. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among adults has been
contributed by the rise in the availability and affordability of low-nutrient, high-energy foods,
and the lack of physical activity. Routinely practices and behaviors have been noted to have a
significant impact on obesity, for instance, inappropriate eating habits and poor regulation of
diet. Majority of adults consume unhealthy nutritional diet without compensatory exercises that
result in increased Body Mass Index (BMI) levels (Flegal et al., 2016). There exist disparities in
the way different individuals view their eating habits. Depending on their parenting styles, they
label the practices as reasonable or fair. Some lack sufficient education, which contributes to
Obesity is associated with the risk of developing severe non communicable conditions
such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancers, and musculoskeletal diseases. As a result of
these complications, the overall quality of life for obese individuals is compromised hence
increase the healthcare costs in the event of seeking medical interventions. Many modalities of
care have been developed to treat this condition. There is a lack of effective evidence-based
practices that could guide the adult population on the management of obesity (Hales, Carroll,
Fryar, & Ogden, 2017). The primary focus should be on establishing a culture of self-care
practices for each person to be cautious of their dietary intake and the physical activities. Nursing
care does not prioritize obesity in the context of frequent monitoring, observation, and
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Among the adults, how is observing healthy diets with regular physical activity compared
to drug therapy effective in reducing obesity in a period of one year?
The population of focus includes the adults who have the capacity to manage themselves
and can understand the consequences of their health behaviors. The intervention revolves around
observation and monitoring health diet coupled with physical activities as compensatory
mechanisms. The response is compared to drug therapy that may have a significant impact on
weight loss. The expected health outcome is the decrease in the rate of obesity among adults. The
stipulated time frame of one year is outlined to indicate long-term strategies in controlling
Critique of quantitative articles
1st article: Montesi, L., El Ghoch, M., Brodosi, L., Calugi, S., Marchesini, G., & Dalle Grave,
R. (2016). Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach.
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity: targets and therapy, 9, 37.
The study identifies long-term weight management of obesity as a difficult task among
several individuals. It is associated with a high risk of timely weight regain. It establishes a
multidisciplinary approach to long-term maintenance of obesity. The study purposed to analyze
the factors related to better weight loss. The integrated research question is ‘what are the
appropriate approaches to long-term weight loss maintenance?' The purpose and the research
question directly conform to the problem under discussion. The author applied quantitative
research method that utilized randomized trials to examine the most recent protocols of lifestyle
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modification. The method was appropriate for this kind of study and provided for the collection
of authentic information. Results indicated that through healthy diets and physical activity is the
mainstay of management, and social support can also be instrumental in the entire process. An
Institutional Review Board approved the study (IRB), and patient privacy was protected through
avoiding to disclose participants identity. The study is applicable not only in the nursing practice
but also in individual self-care activities.
2nd article: Roebroek, Y. G., Talib, A., Muris, J. W., van Dielen, F. M., Bouvy, N. D., & van
Heurn, L. E. (2018). Hurdles to Take for Adequate Treatment of Morbidly Obese Children and
Adolescents: Attitudes of General Practitioners Towards Conservative and Surgical Treatment of
Pediatric Morbid Obesity. World journal of surgery, 1-9.
The study highlights differences among general practitioners (GPs) regarding Bariatric
surgery as the most effective treatment of morbid obesity in adult. Reluctance has been,
considering the referral patterns for the treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the
current practice of GPs regarding the treatment of obesity and their attitudes towards the
emergent phenomenon of weight loss surgery. The research question inferred was; what is the
current practice of GPs in obesity treatment? What the practitioners' attitudes concerning weight
loss? The questions correspond to the problem under study. The study used a quantitative
method that utilized 15 online survey questions in local registries of two medical centers. The
result indicated that the majority of the practitioners supports bariatric surgery effective in
therapy-resistant morbid obesity. They also suggested referral of obese individuals to combined
lifestyle interventions. The study is ethically considerate through approval by the IRB and
respect of participants rights. The study offers ground for further studies.
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Critique of qualitative articles
3rd article: Hruby, A., Manson, J. E., Qi, L., Malik, V. S., Rimm, E. B., Sun, Q., … & Hu, F. B.
(2016). Determinants and consequences of obesity. American journal of public health, 106(9),
The study suggests various causes of obesity among the adult population. Lack of
knowledge about the prevention of obesity is presented as one of the major contributing factors.
The study aimed to review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS and NHS II) in
addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for and consequences of obesity. The research
question inferred is; ‘what is the contribution of Nurses' Health Studies in the management of
obesity?' The research question is relevant to the study and broadens the scope of the research on
obesity in adults. The qualitative research method is applied that involved a narrative review of
the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. The method used was
appropriate in collecting diverse data that offers a significant perspective in the analysis and
interpretation. The results of the study indicated that the significant causes of obesity among
adults in the United States are directly linked to sedentary lifestyles. Healthcare providers
reported that the best way to manage the condition is by encouraging the intake of healthy foods
and engaging in regular physical activity. The findings are supportive of the PICOT question and
try to respond to significant concerns on the discussion topic. , and it abided by all the ethical
requirements. It could be supportive of deriving evidence-based practices in controlling obesity
4th article: Teixeira, P. J., Carraça, E. V., Marques, M. M., Rutter, H., Oppert, J. M., De
Bourdeaudhuij, I., … & Brug, J. (2015). Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in
adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators. BMC medicine, 13(1), 84.
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There have been increased incidences of relapse in lifestyle obesity interventions that
encompass behavior and weight change. Understanding the mediators involved in the
management of obesity is critical and complementary to the responses to the treatment of
obesity. The article aimed at reviewing the self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term
weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change
interventions targeting overweight/obese adults. The research questions utilized were; ‘what are
the regulation mediators of obesity?' ‘What are some of the community behavior change
practices regarding obesity in adults?' The questions are directly related and relevant to the health
problem being discussed. A qualitative research method is applied through a comprehensive peer
review of pieces of literature. The study method was appropriate in elaborating the problem and
inferring the solutions. It was ideal for the collection of reliable information. From a review of
articles, the study revealed that the efficacy of lifestyle modification practices could be enhanced
when obese persons are trained to take charge of the weight reduction process. The findings
serve as the reference point for future studies. The study was approved by an Institutional
Review Board (IRB) and observed the rights of all participants.
The link between PICOT, articles and nursing problem
The PICOT question is relationship-based; it interested in determining the association or
trends and interaction among variables. It is a correlational question that aims to establish the
relationship of eating habits, dietary intake, and behavioral practices with increases in the BMI
levels. The question broadens up the scope of the study in a broad context across the populations.
In these articles, the variables included obesity, eating habits, parenting styles, and behaviors. All
the variables are dependent, which means a change in one variable can directly affect the other.
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Their interaction generates a possible outcome in the population. The PICOT aligns with the
nursing problem in the context that most of the nursing modalities overlook obesity compared to
other significant conditions. Most of the nursing interventions and practices slightly impact
obesity in adults.
Evidence-based practice changes
Integration of a multidisciplinary approach for collaboration and medical monitoring for
obese individuals. In this case, there is a broad scope of sharing the knowledge and skills in the
management of obesity (Marchesini, Petta, & Dalle Grave, 2016). Decreased stigma for
receiving treatment serves to encourage compliance and cooperativeness to the health promotive
activities. It improves the healthcare seeking behaviors in good time before obesity advances to
high levels. Initiation of substantial reimbursable opportunities for follow-ups could make it
easier for consistent monitoring of weight gain or weight loss. Establishment of a trusting
relationship with families and influence a change in the behavioral health practice could
demonstrate a significant impact in managing obesity. The members could be obliged to alter
their lifestyle to control weight gain (Wilfley et al., 2017). Conducting educational teaching and
training on obesity based on nutrition, lifestyles, and physical activities could impact the
knowledge of adults on primary prevention of the problems and management of obesity should it
Obesity is a health problem that can be controlled and managed through various
strategies and practices. Maintenance of healthy dietary intake together with physical activities
demonstrate the most effective approach in avoiding obesity. Therefore, individuals ought to be
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informed of the appropriate behavioral practices for weight management through lifestyle
modification to prevent and treat obesity.
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Flegal, K. M., Kruszon-Moran, D., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2016). Trends
in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. Jama, 315(21), 2284-2291.
Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2017). Prevalence of obesity among
adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016.
Marchesini, G., Petta, S., & Dalle Grave, R. (2016). Diet, weight loss, and liver health in
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology, evidence, and
practice. Hepatology, 63(6), 2032-2043.
Wilfley, D. E., Staiano, A. E., Altman, M., Lindros, J., Lima, A., Hassink, S. G., … & Improving
Access and Systems of Care for Evidence‐Based Childhood Obesity Treatment
Conference Workgroup. (2017). Improving access and systems of care for
evidence‐based childhood obesity treatment: Conference key findings and next
steps. Obesity, 25(1), 16-29.