Social determinants of health (SDOH) full essay

Family Health Assessment Part 2.
Social determinants of health (SDOH) full essay
Social determinants of health are the social and economic conditions that influence the
access to health services and the status of health of individuals and a family in general. They are
health promoting factors and conditions that promote health and healthy environment and also
determine the extent of risk of developing a disease. They are majorly affected by the
government policies that influence health and the financial status of the individuals and the
economy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the effect of poor health
outcomes is due to poor government policies and unfair economic challenges and not due to any
natural phenomena as associated by many (de Andrade et al.,2015).
One of the determinants that affect Lisa’s family is income and incomes distribution.
Income is the consumption and saving within a specified timeline of any single entity that is
general expressed in terms of money and income distribution is the how a country’s GDP is
distributed among its population (Garg et al.,2015). When considering the family, both parents
are working although the father is the only one working a white collar job. Thus, the amount of
income gained by both parents determines the level of care they will provide to their children and
the access that they have within the healthcare system. It is a well up family as they can afford
most of important needs and necessities which also includes a family doctor to always check up
on the members in the event of illness.
Education is also another important factor in the determination of health. With proper
knowledge people are more aware of health risks and health promotion behaviors. They can be
able to determine what most causes of a health problem are and they are able to avoid many
common causes. The family has been able to maintain good health and hygienic standards due to

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 23
the fact that both parents are college graduates; one from college of accounting and the mother
from college of hospitality and catering. They are well knowledgeable on some of the most
common conditions and how they are best prevented. Thus, they have kept their children well
informed and have also explicited healthy lifestyles.
Race is also a factor that affects the family though mildly because of their African
American color. Sometime it may become difficult to access some of the health services due to
their race as they may be discriminated. Additionally, their children are predisposed to some
illnesses due to their genetic makeup. However, Mrs Lisa ensures that she understands some of
the common illnesses that affect the black race and how to best prevent them such as
hypertension and diabetes. Food security is another very common factor that determines the level
of health status of the people in US (Adler et al.,2016). It is the availability of food and measure
of individual’s accessibility to it in relation to cost and affordability. Most of the healthy foods
and vegetables are quite expensive and thus makes it difficult for some households to afford. The
advantage of Lisa and her household is that she works in the catering department and thus she
has some form of access to healthy foods which she brings back home for family consumption.
Recommended age appropriate screenings
Health screening tests are very important throughout one’s lifetime to enable keeping
track of one’s progress and health problems. The screening tests are not however taken randomly
and are age dependent. Thus, according to the guidelines, there are specific tests to be done at a
specific age (Shimizu et al.,2016). The physician may choose to perform some of the tests during
annual hospital visits whereas others are conducted individually routinely. Early detection and
prompt testing is important to detect cancers and any other form of chronic illness such as
diabetes and hypertension.

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 24

10-25yrs
Some of the basic tests that may be performed at a younger age include weight
measurement to determine proper or poor nutritional status, they are also recommended for eye
check-ups and dental examinations at least once every year, they should also be examined to
determine their blood pressure, and regular immunizations check-ups.
18-39yrs
Some of the important screening tests that are conducted at the age bracket include; a
cholesterol check-up which should be initiated at the early twenties and once every five years
after the age of 35yrs if the readings are normal and annually when abnormal, a full body skin
check up to assess for any skin lesions or suspicious moles, self-breast examination for the
women, a pap smear should be performed every three years once the women attain the age of
21yrs, and the men started on testicular examination (Schmitt et al.,2018).
40-64yrs
Most of the screening during the earlier ages should be completed annually unless when
indicated otherwise by the physician. For the age above 40yrs, they are expected to perform a
mammogram for all women aged above 40yrs every year and for those born in the families with
a history of cancer examinations should start at an earlier age, men should start prostate cancer
screening at 50yrs unless when in a family history of cancer where examinations are commenced
at 40yrs, they should conduct regular blood glucose check-ups to assess any risk for diabetes,
and a colonoscopy should be started at the age of 50yrs for every 10yrs unless recommended
otherwise for a family with a history of cancer.
Health model0
Self-empowerment model

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 25
The self-empowerment model is one of the major health promotion models that focus on
the development of individual’s control over their own health and empowerment within their
living environment. The model targets the improvement of self-perception and control over one’s
choices that improve health and facilitate a healthy environment through; improved decision
making, enhanced problem solving, and development of life skills that improve the general
lifestyle (Teymouri et al.,2017). Basically, through the application of the model everyone in the
household becomes responsible for their own health which is most likely to improve the outcome
as compared to where they are cared for.
Lisa applies the model in her home which is demonstrated to have some positive effects
on the overall health of the family members. The children are more empowered to take care of
themselves and prevent some of the easily acquired infections through practice of good personal
hygiene. Thus, their mother does not need to keep on following up as she is assured that once
they understand the importance of a healthy environment they are bound to practice that to the
latter. The entire family is involved in taking care of self and the environment around them. The
prime role of the parents is to ensure that they follow up on the children and educate them on
some of the habits that they may require to change.
Steps for family centered health promotion
One of the initial steps in family health promotion is the open communication with family
members. During the provision of care it is important to involve all members of the family as the
bond and enhanced relationship forms the foundation for improved outcomes and improvement
of quality healthy family lives. The second step is acknowledging and withholding the
importance of family in maintenance of health and healthcare provision. The concept of family
centered care emerged in the 1950s and has been applied till to date due to relevance it has in

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 26
enhancing patient and family health outcomes (Kaakinen et al.,2018). The third step is family
and organization collaboration. For family centered health promotion to be applicable and
effective, the members have to develop a well-organized system and also involve other
partnership organizations to enhance quality and access of healthcare. Some of the strategies that
can be used to improve family centered healthcare include encouraging of cultural literacy and
empowering all members to support the healthcare system.

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 27
References

Adler, N. E., Glymour, M. M., & Fielding, J. (2016). Addressing social determinants of health
and health inequalities. Jama, 316(16), 1641-1642.
de Andrade, L. O. M., Pellegrini Filho, A., Solar, O., Rígoli, F., de Salazar, L. M., Serrate, P. C.
F., … & Atun, R. (2015). Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and
sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries. The
Lancet, 385(9975), 1343-1351.
Garg, A., Toy, S., Tripodis, Y., Silverstein, M., & Freeman, E. (2015). Addressing social
determinants of health at well child care visits: a cluster RCT. Pediatrics, 135(2), e296.
Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., & Robinson, M. (2018). Family health care nursing:
Theory, practice, and research. FA Davis.
Shimizu, T., Bouchard, M., & Mavriplis, C. (2016). Update on age-appropriate preventive
measures and screening for Canadian primary care providers. Canadian Family
Physician, 62(2), 131-138.
Schmitt, A. R., Long, B. J., Weaver, A. L., McGree, M. E., Bakkum-Gamez, J. N., Brewer, J. D.,
& Cliby, W. A. (2018, July). Evidence-based screening recommendations for occult
cancers in the setting of newly diagnosed extramammary paget disease. In Mayo Clinic
Proceedings (Vol. 93, No. 7, pp. 877-883). Elsevier.
Teymouri, F., Alhani, F., & Kazemnejad, A. (2017). THE EFFECT OF FAMILY-CENTERED
EMPOWERMENT MODEL ON SELF-EFFICACY AND SELF-ESTEEM OF THE
CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA.

Social determinants of health (SDOH)
Social determinants of health are the social and economic conditions that influence the
access to health services and the status of health of individuals and a family in general. They are
health promoting factors and conditions that promote health and healthy environment and also
determine the extent of risk of developing a disease. They are majorly affected by the
government policies that influence health and the financial status of the individuals and the
economy. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the effect of poor health
outcomes is due to poor government policies and unfair economic challenges and not due to any
natural phenomena as associated by many (de Andrade et al.,2015).
One of the determinants that affect Lisa’s family is income and incomes distribution.
Income is the consumption and saving within a specified timeline of any single entity that is
general expressed in terms of money and income distribution is the how a country’s GDP is
distributed among its population (Garg et al.,2015). When considering the family, both parents
are working although the father is the only one working a white collar job. Thus, the amount of
income gained by both parents determines the level of care they will provide to their children and
the access that they have within the healthcare system. It is a well up family as they can afford
most of important needs and necessities which also includes a family doctor to always check up
on the members in the event of illness.
Education is also another important factor in the determination of health. With proper
knowledge people are more aware of health risks and health promotion behaviors. They can be
able to determine what most causes of a health problem are and they are able to avoid many
common causes. The family has been able to maintain good health and hygienic standards due to

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 23
the fact that both parents are college graduates; one from college of accounting and the mother
from college of hospitality and catering. They are well knowledgeable on some of the most
common conditions and how they are best prevented. Thus, they have kept their children well
informed and have also explicited healthy lifestyles.
Race is also a factor that affects the family though mildly because of their African
American color. Sometime it may become difficult to access some of the health services due to
their race as they may be discriminated. Additionally, their children are predisposed to some
illnesses due to their genetic makeup. However, Mrs Lisa ensures that she understands some of
the common illnesses that affect the black race and how to best prevent them such as
hypertension and diabetes. Food security is another very common factor that determines the level
of health status of the people in US (Adler et al.,2016). It is the availability of food and measure
of individual’s accessibility to it in relation to cost and affordability. Most of the healthy foods
and vegetables are quite expensive and thus makes it difficult for some households to afford. The
advantage of Lisa and her household is that she works in the catering department and thus she
has some form of access to healthy foods which she brings back home for family consumption.
Recommended age appropriate screenings
Health screening tests are very important throughout one’s lifetime to enable keeping
track of one’s progress and health problems. The screening tests are not however taken randomly
and are age dependent. Thus, according to the guidelines, there are specific tests to be done at a
specific age (Shimizu et al.,2016). The physician may choose to perform some of the tests during
annual hospital visits whereas others are conducted individually routinely. Early detection and
prompt testing is important to detect cancers and any other form of chronic illness such as
diabetes and hypertension.

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 24

10-25yrs
Some of the basic tests that may be performed at a younger age include weight
measurement to determine proper or poor nutritional status, they are also recommended for eye
check-ups and dental examinations at least once every year, they should also be examined to
determine their blood pressure, and regular immunizations check-ups.
18-39yrs
Some of the important screening tests that are conducted at the age bracket include; a
cholesterol check-up which should be initiated at the early twenties and once every five years
after the age of 35yrs if the readings are normal and annually when abnormal, a full body skin
check up to assess for any skin lesions or suspicious moles, self-breast examination for the
women, a pap smear should be performed every three years once the women attain the age of
21yrs, and the men started on testicular examination (Schmitt et al.,2018).
40-64yrs
Most of the screening during the earlier ages should be completed annually unless when
indicated otherwise by the physician. For the age above 40yrs, they are expected to perform a
mammogram for all women aged above 40yrs every year and for those born in the families with
a history of cancer examinations should start at an earlier age, men should start prostate cancer
screening at 50yrs unless when in a family history of cancer where examinations are commenced
at 40yrs, they should conduct regular blood glucose check-ups to assess any risk for diabetes,
and a colonoscopy should be started at the age of 50yrs for every 10yrs unless recommended
otherwise for a family with a history of cancer.
Health model0
Self-empowerment model

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 25
The self-empowerment model is one of the major health promotion models that focus on
the development of individual’s control over their own health and empowerment within their
living environment. The model targets the improvement of self-perception and control over one’s
choices that improve health and facilitate a healthy environment through; improved decision
making, enhanced problem solving, and development of life skills that improve the general
lifestyle (Teymouri et al.,2017). Basically, through the application of the model everyone in the
household becomes responsible for their own health which is most likely to improve the outcome
as compared to where they are cared for.
Lisa applies the model in her home which is demonstrated to have some positive effects
on the overall health of the family members. The children are more empowered to take care of
themselves and prevent some of the easily acquired infections through practice of good personal
hygiene. Thus, their mother does not need to keep on following up as she is assured that once
they understand the importance of a healthy environment they are bound to practice that to the
latter. The entire family is involved in taking care of self and the environment around them. The
prime role of the parents is to ensure that they follow up on the children and educate them on
some of the habits that they may require to change.
Steps for family centered health promotion
One of the initial steps in family health promotion is the open communication with family
members. During the provision of care it is important to involve all members of the family as the
bond and enhanced relationship forms the foundation for improved outcomes and improvement
of quality healthy family lives. The second step is acknowledging and withholding the
importance of family in maintenance of health and healthcare provision. The concept of family
centered care emerged in the 1950s and has been applied till to date due to relevance it has in

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 26
enhancing patient and family health outcomes (Kaakinen et al.,2018). The third step is family
and organization collaboration. For family centered health promotion to be applicable and
effective, the members have to develop a well-organized system and also involve other
partnership organizations to enhance quality and access of healthcare. Some of the strategies that
can be used to improve family centered healthcare include encouraging of cultural literacy and
empowering all members to support the healthcare system.

FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT PART 27
References

Adler, N. E., Glymour, M. M., & Fielding, J. (2016). Addressing social determinants of health
and health inequalities. Jama, 316(16), 1641-1642.
de Andrade, L. O. M., Pellegrini Filho, A., Solar, O., Rígoli, F., de Salazar, L. M., Serrate, P. C.
F., … & Atun, R. (2015). Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and
sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries. The
Lancet, 385(9975), 1343-1351.
Garg, A., Toy, S., Tripodis, Y., Silverstein, M., & Freeman, E. (2015). Addressing social
determinants of health at well child care visits: a cluster RCT. Pediatrics, 135(2), e296.
Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., & Robinson, M. (2018). Family health care nursing:
Theory, practice, and research. FA Davis.
Shimizu, T., Bouchard, M., & Mavriplis, C. (2016). Update on age-appropriate preventive
measures and screening for Canadian primary care providers. Canadian Family
Physician, 62(2), 131-138.
Schmitt, A. R., Long, B. J., Weaver, A. L., McGree, M. E., Bakkum-Gamez, J. N., Brewer, J. D.,
& Cliby, W. A. (2018, July). Evidence-based screening recommendations for occult
cancers in the setting of newly diagnosed extramammary paget disease. In Mayo Clinic
Proceedings (Vol. 93, No. 7, pp. 877-883). Elsevier.
Teymouri, F., Alhani, F., & Kazemnejad, A. (2017). THE EFFECT OF FAMILY-CENTERED
EMPOWERMENT MODEL ON SELF-EFFICACY AND SELF-ESTEEM OF THE
CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA.

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