Application of Grand and Middle Range Nursing Theories

Introduction
This essays focuses on Application of Grand and Middle Range Nursing Theories. According to Brandão et al. (2017), grand nursing theories have a broader scope for explaining the various concepts and propositions encountered in nursing practice compared to the middle range theories. Their framework can be utilized to structure ideas.

The middle range theories have a narrower scope and can always be used in suggesting an intervention. Additionally, the middle range nursing theories have a more specific focus and act as a connection between the grand theories and nursing practice. Indra (2018) stated that the concepts of middle range theories are less abstract and easily offer themselves for verification through testing and are always utilized to explain, describe and predict trends in a phenomenon in nursing practice. The grand nursing theories are always oriented towards models and conceptual frameworks utilized to define practice in different situations and use this perspective to examine various phenomena. This paper aims to explore the concepts and prepositions of a grand theory within a research study, classify and describe a middle-range theory as either descriptive, explanatory, predictive, or prescriptive theory within a research study and additionally describe the value and utility of grand and middle-range nursing theories to advance the discipline of nursing.

Application of Grand and Middle Range Nursing Theories, Grand Nursing Theory

Research Study Article

Pajnkihar, M., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). The concept of Watson’s carative factors in nursing and their (dis)harmony with patient satisfaction. PeerJ5, e2940. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2940

This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of nursing education, perception of nurses and nursing assistants of patient satisfaction, and Watson’s Carative factors. According to Pajnkihar et al. (2017), continually reviewing nurses’ caring behavior and patient satisfaction is essential in improving nursing quality. The study utilized one central concept from Jean Watson’s theory; this is the carative factors. Wei et al. (2019) stated that Watsons developed the ten carative factors central to human caring, and nurses had to consider the factors in their caring role. The original carative factors were then translated to clinical Caritas processes. Watson pointed out that the end objective of caring was protection, enhancement, and preservation of human dignity.

According to the study, patient satisfaction has a great relationship with a caring event. The study also found out that the level of education was related to carative factor sensibility. Patients were more satisfied with the care they received from the nurses and the assistants. However, significant differences were detected in the perception of nurses on carative factors and patient satisfaction. The study also highlights the concept of transpersonal caring relationship and its relationship with patient satisfaction, as in Pajnkihar et al. (2017).

According to Pajnkihar et al. (2017), the transpersonal concept involves the patient being affected by the nurse and the nurse also being affected by the patient; hence, it is termed as an intersubjective human-to-human relationship where they are fully present in the moment and feel a union between them.

Application of Grand and Middle Range Nursing Theories, Middle Range Nursing Theory

Research Study Article

Martins, L. A., Oliveira, R. M., Camargo, C. L., Aguiar, A., Santos, D., Whitaker, M., & Souza, J. (2020). Practice of breastfeeding in quilombola communities in the light of transcultural theory. Revista brasileira de enfermagem73(4), e20190191. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2019-0191

The study aimed to examine the factors that interfere with exclusive breastfeeding in the communities in quilombola. This was a qualitative study that was based on the transcultural theory of nursing developed by Madeleine Leininger. The transcultural theory was utilized on an explanatory perspective in this study as it was used to explain the practices of the breastfeeding mothers in the communities. According to Martins et al. (2020), intergenerational myths and customs were revealed to interfere with breastfeeding practice. Additionally, they unearthed the influence that professional nurses had on breastfeeding best practices.

According to Wehbe-Alamah (2018), the culture care theory mainly involves understanding various cultures and their relationships with nursing, illness, and health practices. It states that diverse cultures have different health behaviors, health and illness values, and beliefs.

With the fact that breastfeeding is immensely affected by culture, the study utilized the transcultural theory to analyze this phenomenon with respect to valuing local culture and being cognizant of the values and practices of the breastfeeding mothers. It was identified the quilombola mothers were mainly influenced by their culture and teaching from matriarchs when breastfeeding.  The study considered some of the concepts of the theory, for example, ethno nursing, cultural and social structure dimensions, worldview, society, and environment (Martins et al., 2020).

Utility and Implication on Nursing Practice

Grand and middle-range nursing theories provide the foundation of nursing practice. They also help in the generation of nursing knowledge and provide a specific direction for nursing practice in the future. Additionally, nursing theories offer multiple explanations to various phenomena that nurses interact with in the practice areas and act based on quality interventions and nursing care, for example, nurses must learn how to be culturally competent to provide culturally competent care, as there is the emergence of various cultures in various communities (Indra, 2018). Additionally, as a family nurse practitioner (FNP) the theories can be used to develop theoretical frameworks that guide research and facilitate the development of evidence-based nursing interventions that aim to improve the advanced nursing practice and nursing as a profession.  The theories also offer a framework that FNPs can utilize to prioritize and systematize their nursing actions.  The FNP standards of nursing care are also mainly developed through careful examination and application of the nursing theories.  The theories can be utilized by advanced nurses to generate research, new evidence, knowledge, and offer various perspectives that improve advanced nursing practice, as in Arif et al. (2019).

Conclusion on Application of Grand and Middle Range Nursing Theories

Nursing theories are a vital aspect of nursing practice and education. The utilization of each theory is different from the other, and nurses must be aware of the utility of the various types of nursing theories. There are multiple benefits of having a defined body of nursing theory; this includes enhancing the nursing profession and nurses themselves, better patient care, and a guide for nursing practice and education (Brandão et al., 2017). The various concepts in nursing theories are significant in influencing and determining nursing practice. In a nutshell, it should be noted that nursing theories can be utilized in different ways to advance the nursing discipline (Arif et al., 2019).

References

Arif, S., Ali, A., & Hussain, N. (2019). Nursing Theories: Foundation of Nursing Profession. i-Manager’s Journal on Nursing9(4), 45.

Brandão, M. A. G., Martins, J. S. A., Peixoto, M. D. A. P., Lopes, R. O. P., & Primo, C. C. (2017). Theoretical and methodological reflections for the construction of middle-range nursing theories. Texto Contexto Enferm26(4), e1420017.

Indra, V. (2018). Nursing Theories: A Review. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management6(3), 271-274.

Martins, L. A., Oliveira, R. M., Camargo, C. L., Aguiar, A., Santos, D., Whitaker, M., & Souza, J. (2020). Practice of breastfeeding in quilombola communities in the light of transcultural theory. Revista brasileira de enfermagem73(4), e20190191. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2019-0191

Pajnkihar, M., McKenna, H. P., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). Fit for practice: Analysis and evaluation of Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing science quarterly30(3), 243-252.

Pajnkihar, M., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). The concept of Watson’s carative factors in nursing and their (dis)harmony with patient satisfaction. PeerJ5, e2940. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2940

Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2018). Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality theory: Classic and new contributions. Annual Review of Nursing Research37(1), 1-23.

Wei, H., Fazzone, P. A., Sitzman, K., & Hardin, S. R. (2019). The Current Intervention Studies Based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring: A Systematic Review. International Journal for Human Caring23(1).

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