Research Paper; Diabetes

Diabetes Research

The majority of the researches are conducted for investigative purposes. Research has over the years served as a tool for finding out new information to add to what already exists. New medical innovations and new techniques in the field of medicine have been discovered after continuous research. All these underline the importance of investigation. This paper will show how research has been used to find better ways to manage Type II diabetes through research. The paper will provide a brief but concise summary of a study conducted on diabetes mellitus.

The following study on The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Program: a web-based program to translate evidence into clinical practice in Type 2 diabetes. The study aimed to validate a web- based program that had been designed to stratify the risk factors of patients with Type II diabetes for better clinical management (Chan et al., 2009). The web-based program whose validity the study is investigating comprises a complete risk engine, clinical decisions, and self-management support to improve ambulatory care for patients with diabetes mellitus.

Introduction

The researcher introduces the study by acknowledging that diabetes mellitus has some devastating complications. Cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy are some of the main complications that could arise from diabetes mellitus (Nathan, 2013). The researcher, however, is convinced that it is possible to prevent and treat complications of diabetes mellitus. The program in question is the brainchild of Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) that is based in Asia.  The background of the study therefore located in Asia (Chan et al., 2009). The study further informs the reader that approximately 100 million people in Asia have Type II diabetes mellitus (Tanaka et al., 2013). The disease has had a sharp increase between the young to middle age group.

The study then gives credit to other randomized studies and other programs that manage diseases since they have helped reduce \the mortality and morbidity ratios associated with diabetes (Tanaka et al., 2013). Still within the introduction, the researcher talk about other advancements made in the management of diabetes mellitus in Asia.

Patients and Methods

The web-based program has a portal that is accessible to anyone (the researcher has provided a link to it). Within the portal is a risk engine that is used to classify the patients with type II diabetes into different risk levels with their corresponding care protocols according to the international guidelines (Nathan, 2013).  After categorization into a threat level, the patients are recommended a care protocol with predetermined follow-up schedules. Doctors participating in the study can include their patients in the study but only after seeking consent from them (Chan et al., 2009).  The program did not store any personal patient information.

The study utilized a prospective register with a total of 7534 patients with type II diabetes mellitus.  45.6% were males with a median age of 57 years old. The study population was used to conduct an internal validation of the risk engine. The JADE risk engine then classified the diabetic patients into four levels of risk starting from low to high. Level 1 comprised 452 patients with Type II diabetes mellitus (Chan et al., 2009); this represented 6% of the total study population.  Level 2 had1468 diabetic patients equivalent to 19.5% of the survey population. Level three had 4476 diabetic patients equal to 59.4% of the total study population. Finally, level 4 had 1138 diabetic patients equal to 15. 1%.

 

 

Results

The researcher then followed up the study population for 5 and half years. Of the men, 763 died because of the diabetes mellitus. Among the remaining diabetic patients, 1129 advanced cardiovascular diseases, 282 developed end-stage renal diseases (ERSD). The remaining 1400 men had at least one of the complications. As compared to level 1, the remaining levels 2,3 and four we linked to a 2.8, 4.7, and 8.6 fold increase of clinical end points respectively. The levels 4 and three were related to 3.9 and 2.2 times increase respectively risk for all causes of death and 12.1 and 4.8 fold increase in cardiovascular disease (Chan et al., 2009).

Statistical analyses

The study did a statistical analysis of the survey using SPSS version 15 software.

Discussion

In its discussion, the study confirmed the usefulness of the risk engine following the findings from the prospective analysis of the over 7000 diabetic patients. The results from the prospective study supported the need to have annual regular risk assessment and comprehensive diagnosis for diabetic patients. The implementation of JADE would run into foreseen challenges; there would need to change the practice environment and provide incentives for the use of the program. There would, therefore, be resource implications limiting the implementation of the program fully. The study recommended that non-profit organizations step in to help in easy adoption and use of the program by many type II diabetes patients (Chan et al., 2009).

In conclusion, the research project concluded that based on its findings from a comprehensive assessment, the JADE risk engine could successfully classify patients with type II diabetes into different levels of risk. The program would thus go a long way in clinically managing patients with Type II diabetes mellitus.

References

Chan, J., So, W., Ko, G., Tong, P., Yang, X., & Ma, R. et al. (2009). The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Program: a web-based program to translate evidence to clinical practice in Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic Medicine26(7), 693-699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02751.x

Nathan, D. (2013). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study at 30 Years: Overview. Diabetes Care37(1), 9-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-2112

Tanaka, S., Tanaka, S., Iimuro, S., Yamashita, H., Katayama, S., & Akanuma, Y. et al. (2013). Predicting Macro- and Microvascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes: The Japan Diabetes Complications Study/the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial risk engine. Diabetes Care36(5), 1193-1199. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc12-0958

 

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