DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT paper
Diabetes is a condition that interferes with the body and it’s ability to balance the level of bloodBglucose. It represents a group of diseases that disrupts the process through which the body uses
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 2
and regulates blood sugars. It occurs when the glucose levels are too high. Insulin is the hormone generated from the pancreas that stimulates the breakdown of glucose and conversion into energy in the body cells. Therefore, malfunction in the pancreas and the release mechanisms of
insulin results in diabetes and its subsequent complications. Diabetes presents four standard types, including type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and gestational diabetes (Haliloğlu et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differences between the four types of diabetes, describe the one type of drug, and explain the short-term and long-term impacts of diabetes.
Types of diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing
pancreatic beta cells and impairs the production of insulin into the body. Thus, it occurs when the
body unable to store and utilize available glucose. It can result in chronically high sugar levels in
patients. It is common among adolescents and children but can also affect the old age (Haliloğlu
et al., 2018). In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but the body is unable to utilize it
sufficiently. Thus, individuals with type 2 diabetes do not respond to insulin besides their
inadequate production. This type interferes with the way the body processes glucose.
In juvenile diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin due to the destruction of
insulin-releasing beta cells in the pancreas by the immune system. It presents high blood sugars
in the body but not to the level of type 2 diabetes. It is caused by genetic factor and some viruses.
Gestational diabetes is a form of high glucose levels developing during pregnancy; however, the
glucose levels normalize after delivery. It presents a risk for type 2 diabetes; it can also cause
complications to the pregnancy and affect the baby's health condition.
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 3
Pramlintide is an amylinomimetic drug that is indicated for the treatment of both type 1
and 2 diabetes. It is developed from amylin, a hormone released into the bloodstream for diabetic
individuals with a deficiency in amylin. In this case, pramlintide drug acts to enhance glycemic
control; it modulates the rate of gastric emptying and inhibits the post-prandial increase in blood
sugars. It also initiates the rise of satiety hence minimizing caloric intake leading to a potential
weight loss (Kimura, MacTavish, Yang, Westaway, & Jhamandas, 2017).
Pramlintide is administered subcutaneously before taking meals. Ensure the solution
attains room temperature before administration, and rotate injection sites to avoid reactions. In
patients with type 1 diabetes, the dosage should start at 15 mcg, thereby increased to 30mcg or
60mcg depending on the tolerance. For, diabetes type 2, patients should begin with 60mcg,
which would be increased to 60mcg when necessary. Insulin doses are supposed to be decreased
while on pramlintide (Kimura, MacTavish, Yang, Westaway, & Jhamandas, 2017). Dietary
consideration regarding pramlintide involves administration one hour before the main meal. The
meals taken should consist of not more than 30 g carbohydrates.
Impact of diabetes
Diabetes may result in polyuria and weight loss due to the inability of the kidney to filter
and contain the extra glucose that is in the bloodstream. High blood sugar levels may also cause
symptoms of fatigue, nausea, and headaches. Diabetes also suppresses the immune system hence
predisposing patients to various infections. It leads to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 4
that present dehydration and electrolyte imbalances (King, & Rosenthal, 2015). It can cause
blood acid levels to rise hence vomiting, low blood pressure, and kidney failure.
Diabetes leads to macrovascular complications that are the damage of the major blood
vessels of the heart, brain, and legs. The risk of cardiovascular diseases is considerable about
diabetic patients. Stroke, heart attack, and arteriosclerosis are common in this regard and may
result in death. Eye problems emerge with increased glucose and could cause conditions such as
retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Kidney damage may also present in the form of
nephropathy resulting from alterations in small blood vessels of the kidney (Diabetes Prevention
Program Research Group. 2015). Nerve damage could equally present due to increased blood
sugars; neuropathy occurs to the sensory and motor nerves. Diabetes also causes foot and skin
problems due to nerve and blood vessel damage.
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 5
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2015). Long-term effects of lifestyle intervention
or metformin on diabetes development and microvascular complications over 15-year
follow-up: the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. The lancet Diabetes &
endocrinology, 3(11), 866-875.
Haliloğlu, B., Abalı, S., Buğrul, F., Çelik, E., Baş, S., Atay, Z., … & Bereket, A. (2018). The
distribution of different types of diabetes in childhood: a single center
experience. Journal of clinical research in pediatric endocrinology, 10(2), 125.
Kimura, R., MacTavish, D., Yang, J., Westaway, D., & Jhamandas, J. H. (2017). Pramlintide
antagonizes beta amyloid (Aβ)-and human amylin-induced depression of hippocampal
long-term potentiation. Molecular neurobiology, 54(1), 748-754.
King, K. B., & Rosenthal, A. K. (2015). The adverse effects of diabetes on osteoarthritis: update
on clinical evidence and molecular mechanisms. Osteoarthritis and cartilage, 23(6), 841-