Outline of the Ebola Virus Disease

Outline of the Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola is a viral disease that is often fatal with a case fatality rate of over 90% in affected individuals. The disease is caused by one of the strains of Ebola virus, and it is known to cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates such as monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas. The disease is prominent in African countries with the most recent outbreak of 2014 occurring in western Africa (CDC, 2017). This paper outlines the risk population of the disease, treatment and the costs from recent outbreaks and the relevant teachings applied as preventive measures to the disease outbreak.


Ebola virus disease is transmitted through contact with infected individuals, and the healthcare team is at high risk of getting the disease. Contact with body fluids of the infected individual directly transmits the disease. Individuals who come in contact with wild animals are at risk of getting the disease. According to reports from previous outbreaks, all epidemics occur in sub-optimal conditions where practices like sanitation and hygiene are undermined.

According to the world health organization, past Ebola outbreaks have occurred in seven African countries to include DRC, Gabon, South Sudan, Uganda, ROC and South Africa. The most recent epidemic occurred in 2014 in Western Africa. The average case fatality rate is estimated at 50% by the WHO. The CDC provided reports on the Western Africa disease epidemic, and several people died. In the United States, four cases were reported, and one death occurred during the outbreak. The case fatality rate was estimated at 68.5% during the 2014 outbreak (CDC, 2017). The global health is less affected by the disease because it occurs rarely and it is easily controlled through quarantine and usage of protective gear.



The management of Ebola outbreaks starts with surveillance and contact tracing together with case management. Awareness is then created on the preventive measures such as the use of gloves and avoidance of contact with infected individuals. Supportive management in the hospitals includes rehydration and symptomatic management using appropriate drugs (CDC, 2017). Quarantine in the hospital is a key procedure towards the management of the condition. As a nurse manager, proper utilization of available staff and allocation of duties will help manage the condition. The managers also ensure that protective gear is readily available for the staff to use during outbreaks.


The relevant teachings provided during Ebola outbreaks focus on the safety of healthcare providers. Nurses and doctors should wear protective gear when handling patients affected by the disease. Quarantine is an effective measure in preventing the spread of the disease. Personal hygiene of the healthcare workers and safety measures such as hand washing are employed during outbreaks. Individual health education offered include handling animals at home with protective gear, hand washing after visiting patients in the hospital and the use of protective equipment when caring for the patients.

Communities affected by the disease should be informed of the protective measures such as burying the dead and isolation to prevent the spread of the disease. Routine cleaning and disinfection of domestic animals such as pigs should be done to prevent the outbreak of the disease. Animal products should be cooked thoroughly as a precaution to the disease outbreak. Community health nurses have a role in health education through campaigns to keep the people reminded of the disease.

Legislative Acts

The United States provides regulations on quarantine that is applicable in Ebola virus disease management. Quarantine powers are limited to transportation or international traveling during outbreaks (Markey et al. 2016). In Texas State, the communicable disease control act issues quarantine orders in coordination with the public health authority.


Markey, M., Ransom, M. M., & Sunshine, G. (2016). Ebola: A Public Health and Legal Perspective. Michigan State international law review24(2), 433. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4920479/

CDC (2017). Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever/ CDC.  Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/