Medical Models and Alternative Perspective on Psychological Disorder. The medical models come within reach of issues of mental health that incorporates aspects of both science and biology without being identical with either. Medical models has strengths in some arenas chiefly those in which there is extensive consensus among humans, and restrictions of its own that need to be evaluated in their own terms. One of the problems is that medical models suggest a uniformity of medical ideas about the cause and treatment that does not suit the empirical diversity since doctors do not fully focus on physical factors.
Medical models is termed as a scientific process involving description, differentiation and observation which moves towards recognizing and treating symptoms to identifying diseases and developing specific possible treatments. It is therefore a process in which the doctor advises on, coordinate and deliver interventions for health improvement.
These models help to study and explain the external and internal structures of human body. The range of this model includes, head models, muscle models, lung models, digestive system models, nervous system models and human heart models among many others.
Medical models can be seen as set of assumptions that views behavioral abnormalities in the same framework as physical diseases abnormalities
The scientific medical model
In this model, there is no direct interest in deterrence or cure, but interest only in there attainment of scientific knowledge about the nature of disease. In this model, the doctor is replaced by an investigator who has no obligation to cure or prevent disease. The patient is replaced by the subject who volunteers his services. Subjects have rights that citizens and patients do not have and their responsibility is to honor their commitment to the study only.
Psychological disorder perspective is the method used to categorize psychological disorders, and clarify the reasons for its progress. The mental disorder emerges from a human system that has both psychosocial elements (family, relationships, community and the society in large) physical elements (a biological nervous system). A psychological model is a theory which explains the phenomenon of a condition, say what it must be like to experience that condition, explain its source and makes predictions about the condition. Psychological disorders are detrimental dysfunction judged to be maladaptive, typical, upsetting and unjustifiable.
A typical behavior is the one that other people find disturbing. Major psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia are universal while others such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa are culture-bound. When a person has an irrational fear of a certain object, situation or an activity, that disrupt behavior, the diagnosis is a phobia disorder. Even though in many situations a person can live with the problem, certain phobias are incapacitating. Such phobias are fear of thunderstorm and lightening and also fear of the darkness. Fear prepares someone’s body to free danger. A bipolar is another psychological disorder that occurs when a person’s mood alternate between hyperactive state of mania and depression
The bio-psycho-social perspective
This perspective implies that all behavior, whether normal or disordered arises from the interaction of nature and nature. It assumes that the socio-culture, biological and psychological factors combines and contributes greatly to psychological disorders). The bio-psycho-social model is based on the notion of multiple simultaneous causes of mental disorder. In this perspective, disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions, inner psychological dynamics, cultural and social situation.
Feelings of social alienation, aloofness, confusion and disorientation, bizarre thoughts and sensations, the signs of schizophrenia are disorganized deluded thinking, disturbing perceptions, expressionless faces mute or rigid bodies and inappropriate actions and emotions. Some victims of schizophrenia lapse into a zombie like state of apathy and others may remain motionless for many hours. People born in densely populated areas and during springs and winter seasons are at increased schizophrenia risks and also those who undergo fetal development during flu seasons.
Our occasional uneasiness is not strong and persistent. It becomes so when we have one of the anxiety disorders disorder marked by maladaptive behavior reducing anxiety or distressing persistent anxiety. Generalized Anxiety disorder, for at least 6 months someone feels anxious and worried most of the time. Usually have no good reason for feelings of anxiety and continue function in social conditions such as drug and alcohol abuse.
They are psychological illnesses that are severely impairing. They are contrasted neurotic disorders that allow the person to purpose socially.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
It is characterized by patterns of compulsive behavior and obsessive thoughts. A compulsion constantly intrudes repetitive acts and behavior.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
It involves several symptoms that arise at time well after witnessing a upsetting and highly stressful events often associated with military conflicts and terrorism. Victims of (PTSD) have symptoms of persistent anxiety, flashbacks, distressing dreams and hallucinations, and disruptive recollections.
Compulsive acts typically embellish behaviors that contribute to species survival. Most phobias therefore focus on objects that for our fore fathers, presented occasional dangers. Many modern fears may also have evolutionary details. Some people seem genetically given to certain fears and anxiety. Generalized anxiety disorder, pressure and obsessions and even panic attacks are biologically computable as an over arousal of brain areas implicated in impulse control and habitual behavior.