Advanced health and Physical Assessment
The only similarity that exists between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is that both conditions affect the prostate. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer caused by abnormal growth of prostate cancer cells. Benign prostatic hyperplasia commonly occurs after the age of 40 years characterized by urinary tract obstruction. Prostate cancer is characterized by a nodular and firm prostate which is enlarged on digital rectal examination while there is an enlarged prostate which is boggy in the case of BPH on examination (Arterburn eta al, 2015). Prostate cancer mostly affects the lateral lobes while the central portion of the prostate is more affected in BPH. Early signs of both prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia include increased urination frequency, hesitancy, dribbling and increased micturition at night. The most common area of metastasis is the pelvic area and occasionally the bones while BPH does not spread.
A PSA test is used primarily to test for prostate cancer and measures the blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) produced in the prostate. The diagnosis of prostate cancer is an elevated level of PSA and alkaline phosphatase while in benign prostatic hyperplasia it is only PSA value which is elevated. The PSA is not a confirmatory diagnosis of prostate cancer due to other conditions which may cause its elevation such as BPH (Leidinger et al, 2016). Prostate cancer is treated depending on how aggressive cancer and underlying conditions that may be present. A patient may simply go through monitoring or a surgery to remove the tumor. Radiation and hormone therapy may also be used in the treatment of prostatic cancer. Treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia also depends on the severity and can entail drugs to shrink the prostate. Surgery may be conducted to enhance urine flow by removing the central part of the prostate.
Arterburn, D., Wellman, R., Westbrook, E. O., Ross, T. R., McCulloch, D., Handley, M., … & Hoffman, R. M. (2015). Decision aids for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The American journal of managed care, 21(2), e130-40.
Leidinger, P., Hart, M., Backes, C., Rheinheimer, S., Keck, B., Wullich, B., … & Meese, E. (2016). Differential blood-based diagnosis between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: miRNA as source for biomarkers independent of PSA level, Gleason score, or TNM status. Tumor Biology, 37(8), 10177-10185.