The creation of antibiotics
The World Health Organization (WHO) says that (2020). Lack of private funding and lack of new ideas in developing antibiotics make it harder to fight infections that are resistant to drugs. Also, there is a great need for more research and development of antibiotics to help treat multiple illnesses, such as those caused by the hard-to-treat gram-negative bacteria. To fix the lack of antibiotics, scientists need to come up with stronger and more effective antibiotics that can help treat a wide range of bacterial infections.
The drug that is going to be made will be called Kleboffecta, which comes from the Klebsiella bacteria that it will work against. For serious infections and strains of bacteria that are resistant, the antibiotic will come in an injectable form. It will also be in tablet form.The drug won’t have anything to thin it out, and it must be kept at a temperature between +15 and +28. The shot should be given twice a day, 12 hours apart, for up to 5 days. After that, the client should take the oral tablet for another 7 days. The drug will be given at an amount of 100 mg once a day for up to 7 days. The drug can’t be given to children younger than 5 years old. The drug will stop the Klebsiella strain of bacteria from growing by stopping the formation and production of polysaccharide capsular.
Antibiotics are a type of medicine that is used to treat infections caused by germs. Most antibiotics either stop the growth of bacteria or kill them. Gram-negative bacteria will be the focus of the drug that is made. This is because gram-negative bacteria are very immune to most of the drugs used in clinical settings. To solve this problem, my new idea will focus on this group of bacteria. Klebsiella will be the type of gram-negative bacteria that the drug will work against. (Marques et al., 2019) say that Klebsiella can cause illnesses like pneumococcus, meningitis, wound infections, and bold infections.Most of the medicines used to treat Klebsiella have lost their effectiveness over time. This makes it hard to know what kind of drug will work against a certain strain of Klebsiella. Most of the time, they live in the gut. People who are being treated for other infections for a long time often get these diseases. Klebsiella infections are also more likely to happen in people who have invasive medical devices like ventilators and intravenous tubes. (Bellich et al., 2019)
Drug-resistant Klebsiella has been shown to be immune to carbapenems, which are the last line of defense against bacteria. This makes it hard to treat most of this infection. This makes it even more important to make a drug that can kill this group of germs. The range of covering will be mostly all Klebsiella strains. (resistant and not resistant). The drug will be lipid-soluble so it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). It will have a half-life of 12 hours and be removed from the body through the kidneys. Doses will have to be changed for people who don’t have enough kidney function.
In many clinical situations, the rise of bacteria that are resistant to drugs has been a major cause for concern. The main thing that will lead to the most resistance to this antibiotic is not using enough empiric treatment and taking the drug for a long time. Skipping doses of a drug or taking it for a long time will instantly lead to resistance. The created drug should only be given to a patient after lab tests show that Klebsiella is resistant, and the patient shouldn’t take it for more than 45 days in a row.
The drug should only be given when all other kinds of medicines that work against Klebsiella have failed. When other medicines can kill gram-negative bacteria, using this drug can make it harder for the client or patient to get better if they get an infection during treatment. The drug is to be given to all hospitalized patients through directly observed treatment (DOT). Resistance can easily happen if the drug is given every other day, if doses are skipped, or if the time between doses is changed.
Each antibiotic has a different pattern of resistance, so it’s important to find out what they all are. This will help us come up with ways to stop resistance from happening. (Bellich et al., 2019)
How bacteria are made
Klebsiella is not thought to move and has a rod-like form. They are also opportunistic pathogens that are mostly bacteria from the ESKAPE group. They, too, are proteobacteria and have a polysaccharide shell that stands out. They can also fly when they want to. Capsular polysaccharide makes up 63% of it, while lipopolysaccharide makes up 30% and protein makes up 7%. The capsule polysaccharide keeps the bacteria safe from hard conditions and is Klebsiella pneumoniae’s main virulence factor. Most bacteria in the Klebsiella genus have the O antigen, which is a lipopolysaccharide, and the K antigen, which is a capsular polysaccharide, on the surface of their cells. The organism’s large size in gram stain is due to the capsule, which is also the main way resistance moves. (Marques et al., 2019).
The capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae is made of two layers and is also set apart by a cluster of fibers. The fibers in the inner layer of the capsule stand up straight against the surface of the outer cell membrane. The upper layers are set up in a way that makes a fine network structure. Also, it has been shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains make fimbriae (type 3). (Bellich et al., 2019)
How disease happensThe Klebsiella pneuomaniae disease process will be the main one that will be explained. This is one of the most common reasons why people get sick in hospitals. When Klebsiella gets out of the gut and into other parts of the body, it always makes infections. Some of the diseases are infections of the urinary system, pneumonia, septicemia, and soft tissue injuries. The intensity and differences between diseases are mostly caused by the virulence factor. Most medical tools and procedures, like tubes, make it more likely that a person will get infected with Klebsiella. When the germs get into the lungs, bloodstream, wounds, brain, or urinary tract, they cause serious infections. The main goal of the drug will be to stop the germs from spreading and stop it from moving around so that it doesn’t hurt other body parts or systems. (Marques et al., 2019).
When bacteria change their properties or ways of acting, antibiotics no longer work.
Bacteria always change how they act when they are exposed to new drugs or surroundings. This could cause the bacteria to change their form, membranes, and structure so they can live in the new places. This will make the way the drugs work ineffective, so they won’t be able to treat the disease caused by those germs. (Dik et al., 2018)
Hypothesis 2: Antibiotics don’t work because people don’t follow the treatment plan, therapy, and directions.
When the right doses aren’t taken at the right time and frequency, the antibiotic won’t reach the needed level of distribution in the body or the point of efficacy. As in Tomczyk et al., this means that the antibiotic’s mechanism of action won’t work as well, and the disease won’t be treated. (2018)
The drug doesn’t work because the enzymes in the gut break down the drug’s ingredients.
Some drugs break down in acidic or alkaline environments. If the drugs pass through these mediums, their structure and composition will change, making the drug ineffective and preventing it from reaching its target point of cation, as in Tomczyk et al. (2018).
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