Medication errors

Medication Errors

According to World health organization,(2016) medication errors refers to any event that is preventable and may result to Improper use or maim the patient in the time that the medication is in the hands of the healthcare professional, consumer or the patient. The event can occur at different times in the process of availing of the drug to the patient. These encompass the point of prescribing, labeling of the drug, communication while ordering the medication, distribution, dispensing, use, monitoring, education or even packaging.  With the diverse points of the occurrences of the error, it translates to the probability of preventing it at the different points before it gets to be used by a patient.

The choice of the topic “medication errors” was moved by the fact that the philosophy of nursing advocates for the availability of the nurse in identifying the needs of patients and being available for the patient during the entire period in providing safe and quality care. One of the issues that erupt in the nursing practice is the occurrence of the medication errors. By exploring the topic, an avenue is created to prevent the various instances of nursing medication errors as this will lead to the provision of safe care to the patients. The keywords and databases that will be of the essence in searching for information and peer-reviewed articles will include:

  1. Medication errors in nursing practice.
  2. Causes of medication errors
  3. Prevention of medication errors
  4. Medication errors in the wards
  5. Safe Primary Care

The databases that are of the essence in obtaining information and accessing peer-reviewed articles  for the review encompass the following:

  1. a) Pub Med
  2. b) Google Scholar
  3. c) Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL)

Bohomol, E. (2014). Medication errors: descriptive study of medication classes and high-alert

medication. Escola Anna Nery, 18(2), 311-316.

The study was geared towards the determination of the medication classes that are involved in the errors that occur during medication in an intensive care unit. Besides, the study aimed at classifying the high alert medication classes. This review is relevant to the research topic in that it points out the specific areas where there are high chances of medication errors. This basis provided insight on venturing into the study because the results are essential in the development of strategies for preventing the mistakes. The data was obtained through secondary analysis of already existing information that was collected from previous instances of medication errors. The review by peers dwelt on the identified classes since their existed numerous points of alert that were excluded that were also critical in the determination of the exact points of medication errors.

Bohomol, (2014) determined 305 events in the study with an average of about 6.9events for every patient. With 73 three medication identified, the study distributed them in 33 classes as per the frequency of occurrence. Antibiotics accounted for 25.2%, antacids at 19.0%, antihypertensive at 9.2%. Also, 37 events accounting for 12.1% were determined to be involving the high alert medication classes with the venous anesthetics predominating at 43.3%. The analysis determined the frequently used drugs within the intensive care unit hence need for caution while dealing with them to prevent medication errors.

Gartshore, E., Waring, J., & Timmons, S. (2017). Patient safety culture in care homes for older

people: a scoping review. BMC health services research, 17(1), 752.

This systematic review focuses on the patient safety at home where they receive care. Gartshore, Waring, & Timmons, (2017) argues that much concentration of patient safety has been based on the hospital setting will less attention provided to the safety culture in the home setting where there exist a good number of patients who also receive care at such points. This is relevant to the research topic since the medication errors tamper with the safety of care that patients receive and this can occur even in the home setting where patients receive medication and other types of care as well. A review of the literature was conducted to determine the existence of information about the safety culture in home-based care. The activities that form the safety culture was at the center of peer review since they differ in both the clinical and home settings where the patients receive care.

With the review of 24 empirical papers and one literature, the review determined the safety culture based on registered nursing homes and not residential homes. This revelation calls for venturing of researchers on the safety cultures in the residential homes which are vital in the provision of quality and safe care irrespective of the point of care administration which includes administration of care.

Khalil, H., Shahid, M., & Roughead, L. (2017). Medication safety programs in primary care: a

scoping review. JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, 15(10),

2512-2526.

Khalil, Shahid & Roughead, (2017) reiterates that the safety of patient related to medication is an essential aspect of any healthcare program that is committed towards quality and safe care. The study recognized the existence of various programs that are present in a hospital setting that evaluates the safety programs with absent reviews on the medication safety programs in the primary care settings. The systematic review dwelt on the medication safety programs in the primary care. This review is in line with the research topic as it focuses on information concerning the medication errors that occur in the primary care which have not been the focus of various studies. Systematic review was conducted on studies relating to medications safety programs. The data extraction formed the center of review with compliments on the detailed manner of determining the studies and content obtained from them.

There existed various medication safety programs that vary in characteristics across the care settings. These variations range from improvement tools, informatics, educational training, feedback provision and quality improvement tools. The outcome of these programs was a reduction of incidences of medication errors.

Sand‐Jecklin, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes

of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of clinical nursing, 23(19-20), 2854-

2863.

This article dwelt on the changes that originate from the report exchanged by nursing staffs during the changing of shifts. The authors determined the presence of inadequate quantification of the outcomes of the process of hand over which was essential in the provision of safe care to the patient. This article is relevant to my study in that one of the positive outcomes of nursing reports is the reduction of medication errors. This benefit comes on the basis that with a comprehensive nursing report, continuity of care is enhanced, verbal and written reports on the medication is given as well as the general care of the patient. In the long haul, a repeat of medication and care is avoided, and this is essential in preventing medication errors at the point of administration by the nursing staff. Sand‐Jecklin, & Sherman, (2014) used a quasi-experimental design in undertaking their study. Nursing reports were evaluated in seven medical-surgical units with various outcomes being monitored. The results entailed the medication errors, patients, and nurses’ satisfaction, nursing overtime, as well as the patients, falls. These outcomes formed the center of peer review since the impact of the report entailed other issues such as quality of care and continuity of care in the units.

There existed a marked effect on the outcomes with the implementation of the nursing reports since patient safety and nursing satisfaction getting better with the process in place. Indeed with appropriate application of bedside report, the nursing care provision gains a lot concerning providing desired care to patients.

 

 

 

References

Bohomol, E. (2014). Medication errors: descriptive study of medication classes and high-alert

medication. Escola Anna Nery18(2), 311-316.

Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step

approach. British journal of nursing17(1), 38-43.

Gartshore, E., Waring, J., & Timmons, S. (2017). Patient safety culture in care homes for older

people: a scoping review. BMC health services research17(1), 752.

Khalil, H., & Roughead, L. (2017). Medication safety programs in primary care: a scoping

review protocol. JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports15(6),

1512-1517.

Sand‐Jecklin, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes

of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of clinical nursing23(19-20), 2854-

2863.

World Health Organization. (2016). Medication errors. Technical Series on Safer Primary Care

World Health Organization.

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