Immunity Case Study custom essay

Immunity Case Study custom essay

1. Three differential diagnoses based on Janet’s subjective and objective data and
reasoning for each
Given the personal and objective data from Janet's case, the primary diagnosis is allergic
rhinitis. According to Editore (2014), symptoms of rhinitis include runny nose, postnasal
drainage and itchy eyes. Secondly, the seasonal allergic rhinitis, given that the symptoms that
Janet experienced came during spring and fall. The third diagnosis is atopic dermatitis due to the
widespread lesions occurring after a hypersensitive reaction.
2. Additional history questions that would be useful in the evaluation of Janet
i. Do you have a family history of allergic rhinitis?
ii. Do you have any pets? And what type of pet (a cat or a dog)?
iii. What is your work environment?
iv. At home, are your windows always open?
Such questions will help in establishing whether Janet is exposed to allergens at home or work.
3. Pathophysiological process of the primary diagnosis
Settipane, R. A., & Charnock (2016) argues that exposure to allergens the body produces
allergic-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE). There are IgE receptors at respiratory mucosa and
mast cells that then binds with IgE antibodies. The receptors and antibodies bind to basophils in
peripheral blood. When inhaled the allergen bridges the IgE antibodies on the cell surface, thus


activating the cell. Mast cells in the nasal tissues release chemical mediators, causing the
symptoms of rhinitis.
4. Differences between the four types of hypersensitivity mechanisms
Type I: Hypersensitivity reactions that are mediated by Immunoglobulin E. According to Delves
et al. (2017) hypersensitivity, I reactions are mediated by antigen-specific IgE and tissue mast
cells. Healthcare providers term it as allergy, given that most allergies fall under the type I
Type II: Tissue-specific reaction-It is an immediate reaction involving IgM and IgC antibodies
and tissue macrophages. The common disorders on this reaction include hemolytic anaemia,
graves’ disease and autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Type III: The immune complex-mediated reaction. It is also an immediate reaction which
involves IgM and IgG antibodies and neutrophils. The common disorder of this type of reaction
is systemic lupus erythematosus.
Type IV: Mediated reaction. This is a reaction that does not involve particular antibodies.
However, it comprises of macrophages and lymphocytes. The key reactions include contact
sensitivity to metals and poison ivy.
5. Type of hypersensitivity reaction that Janet experiencing as per my analysis
Type I hypersensitivity reaction gave that she was exposed to allergens such as pollen and pet
dander (Delves et al., 2017). Now she has allergic rhinitis.


Editore, S., (2014). Allergic rhinitis. SICS Editore.
Delves, P. J., Martin, S. J., Burton, D. R., & Roitt, I. M. (2017). Essential immunology. John
Wiley & Sons.
Settipane, R. A., & Charnock, D. R. (2016). Epidemiology of rhinitis: allergic and nonallergic.
In Nonallergic Rhinitis (pp. 45-56). CRC Press.