Breast Cancer Gene Custom Essay
What to do to Rachael
The results obtained by Rachael’s physician on the genetic test puts the physician in an
ethical dilemma. If I were Rachael’s physician, I would respect the decision that Rachael has
made, and I would not go and find her family member whom she has lost contact for long with
her against her wish. The reason behind this action is because as a health care practitioner, I am
supposed to comply with the rules that have been established by the Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act. The act aims to ensure the protection of the medical records of
individual and other health care information. In this case, I would educate Rachael on the risk of
breast cancer that her sister is having following their family history and if she continues to
refuse, I will encourage her to find a third party to reach out to her sister.
Breast malignancies are categorized as carcinomas because they arise from the epithelial
tissues. Breast cancers always begin from the ductal tissues, which then metastases to other
tissues of the breast and the nearby organs such as the chest, lungs and lymphatic system
(Kuchenbaecker et al., 2017). Breast cancer occurs when there is abnormal growth of cells. The
healthy breast cells and tissues are replaced by the abnormal cells which contain damaged DNA.
Role of BRCA in patient management
The gene mutation of the BRCA1 has been identified to be the cause of ovarian and
breast cancer that is inherited. According to (Godet & Gilkes, 2017), a thorough family history
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primarily on the maternal side helps the health care professionals in identifying individuals who
are at risk of BRCA1gene.
BRCA 1 AND BRCA2 as a risk factor for breast cancer
A BRCA 1 and BRCA2 gene produces the tumour suppressor gene proteins. The protein
helps the cells to repair damaged DNA and ensure that the genetic materials are preserved.
According to (Godet & Gilkes, 2017) any mutation of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 will lead to less
or no production of tumour suppressor gene protein thus increasing g the risk of getting ovarian
and breast cancer.
Risk factors and prevention
Lack of awareness regarding breast cancer is one of the risk factors of developing the
disease (Tao et al., 2015). Therefore, the health care practitioners should involve themselves in
creating awareness to the public on risk assessment, lifestyle modification and breast cancer
counselling sessions to enable a various individual get an understanding on the prevention
measures of breast cancer and the importance of risk assessment.
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Kuchenbecker, K. B., Hopper, J. L., Barnes, D. R., Phillips, K. A., Mooij, T. M., Roos-Blom, M.
J., … & Goldgar, D. E. (2017). Risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Jama, 317(23), 2402-2416.
Tao, Z., Shi, A., Lu, C., Song, T., Zhang, Z., & Zhao, J. (2015). Breast cancer: epidemiology and
aetiology. Cell biochemistry and Biophysics, 72(2), 333-338.
Godet, I., & Gilkes, D. M. (2017). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and treatment strategies for
breast cancer. Integrative cancer science and therapeutics, 4(1).