Summary of Research Articles

Summary of Research Articles

Qualitative and quantitative research designs are strategies used to integrate different components of a study into coherent and logical ways hence ensuring that the survey addresses the study problem adequately (Creswell, 2013).  They both entail collection, measurement, and analysis of data. The research question is the one that determines the type of investigation design to employ.  To explain this are summaries of two research studies in which one used qualitative design and the other used quantitative design. The two bring distinctness of the two study designs. Other parameters used to distinguish the two research designs involve formulation of hypothesis in quantitative research but on the other hand, qualitative research uses formulation of research questions and objectives (Polit, & Beck, 2012).

Embeddingthe Perceptions of People with Dementia into Quantitative Research Design

O’Rourke,Duggleby, and Fraser, (2015)in theirquantitative research focuses on the understanding of people with dementia about the quality of life. The study employs correlational research design in which the researcher uses the patient relationship with family members, friends, and other residents. The data obtained by the researcher assists in the formulation of hypotheses, the independent variable (a measure of a quality of relationship) and dependent variables employed in the study.

Problem Statement

O’Rourke,Duggleby, and Fraser, (2015) are of the opinion that the meaning of quality of life has been changing over the past few years. In the early 1970s, quality of life in dementia patients was focusing on objective social indicators rather than on an individual parameter of quality of life. There is a growing consensus that the quality of life construct has subjective and that capturing the views of people with dementia; this is necessary for assessment of the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to assess the issue of quality of life in dementia patients. The quality of life in dementia patients is assessed through conflicts that arise between the patients and their family members, friends and significant others. The conflicts are caused by sadness that the patients go through during the ailing period.

Statement of Purpose

The research aims at assessing the perception of dementia patients about the quality of life.

Research Questions/Hypothesis

Central to this study, is a research question (What is the interpretation of quality of life in patients having dementia?)

Study Methods

The study used a framework that focuses on the studies that reflect people living with dementia’s views on the quality of life. Also, a comprehensive database was used to operationalize the variables selected from this framework. Consequently, it was made possible by using three steps; reviewing themes from systematic evaluations of quality evidence, mapping sub-concepts to records, therefore, springing hypotheses, and re-situating in the larger literature (O’Rourke, Duggleby, & Fraser, 2015).

Key Findings

The study ascertained that there is perceived disagreement among people living with dementia and family members, friends, and other residents and this is because of sadness. Thus, as sickness and functional dependence increase, the probability of conflicts increases. However, the framework does not explain the correlations between the conflicts with family, staff or other residents (independent variables) since the meta-synthesis did not sustenance these suggestions (O’Rourke, Duggleby, & Fraser, 2015).


O’Rourke, H. M., Duggleby, W., & Fraser, K. D. (2015). Embedding the perceptions of people with dementia into quantitative research design. Quality of Life Research, 24(5), 1145-1155.ced nursing, 71(8), 1812-1824.



The Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit Nurses Experience with End-Of-Life Care

Calvin, Lindy, and Clingon, (2009) explain that determining treatment alternativeshave become futileas compared to treatment options used in the past 30 years. Many diseases that were considered fatal are now easily treated hence creating a notion that death is evitable. Such a belief has affected nurses causing them to be in a different state between their role as independent providers and advocates for the patients versus their role of physician assistants.

According to Calvin, Lindy, and Clingon, (2009), patients and their families are challenged to understand their management, risks and their consequences simply because of the innovative technology found in the modern critical care unit. The nurse as an instructor, activist bears much of providing the level of education required by patients and their families when medical care no longer appears to equate with quality of attention. However, nurses may feel demotivated by their lack of participation in decision-making pertaining palliative care. Nurses expressed moral angst when caring for the palliative patients. Therefore, this study was to understand the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) nurses views about their responsibilities in the policymaking process about a shift of care, end-of-life care for patients within CVICU scenery (Calvin, Lindy, & Clingon, 2009).

Problem Statement

Nurses working in one CVICU expressed moral struggle when caring for palliative patients. The moral struggle is caused by the pain experienced by critically ill patients having cardiovascular conditions, a nurse being the principle caregiver experiences the pain and struggle that these patients go through. Study aims to understand the perception of cardiovascular intensive care unit nurses about their roles and duties. The roles and duties are mostly focusing in decision-making process. Change in intensity of care for patients in these settings is critical in the management of critically ill patients, palliative patients and patients having end-of –life cardiovascular diseases (Calvin, Lindy, & Clingon, 2009).

Statement of purpose

The aim of the study was to understand the perception of nurses working in CVICU about their roles and responsibilities in the decision-making process about the care provided to palliative care patients within the care setting (Calvin, Lindy, & Clingon, 2009).

Research Questions

  1. How can a nurse’s experience with commencement and decision-making process related to change in the intensity of attention to palliative and end-of-life care for critically ill patients?
  2. What is the nurse’s perception of the roles they play in the power of attention, palliative and EOL decisions?
  3. Which factors influence EOL decision-making in the CVICU setting?


Nineteen nurses from CVICU accepted to be interviewed individually regarding their experiences of managing critically ill patients and specifically pertaining start of a change in code status. The study used a descriptive design to generate, organize a summary of the data. Analysis of data was done and compared with those from previous interviews, therefore, establishing similarities and differences. Researchers reached an agreement about the major themes (Calvin, Lindy, & Clingon, 2009).


Analysis showed four key themes: finishing patient’s therapy, encouraging family presence, patients in the CVICU compromise the decision-making capacity. In this case, the severity of their condition makes health practitioners turn to patients, family members and significant others regarding their management options (Peters, 2013). Acknowledging the authority of the doctor, nurses have a hard time preparing the patient’s families for the impending death. Signs of death seem to be approaching, but the doctors do not realize that the treatments are exhausted and the patient’s condition is irreversible.Despite having explicit knowledge, the nurse acknowledges the physicians authority pertaining end of life decision making as the right initiator of the process; as well as the decision maker, and walking a fine line (Calvin, Lindy, & Clingon, 2009).


Calvin, A. O., Lindy, C. M., & Clingon, S. L. (2009). The cardiovascular intensive care unit nurse’s experience with end-of-life care: A qualitative descriptive study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 25(4), 214-220




Calvin, A. O., Lindy, C. M., & Clingon, S. L. (2009). The cardiovascular intensive care unit nurse’s experience with end-of-life care: A qualitative descriptive study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 25(4), 214-220

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

O’Rourke, H. M., Duggleby, W., & Fraser, K. D. (2015). Embedding the perceptions of people with dementia into quantitative research design. Quality of Life Research, 24(5), 1145-1155.ced nursing, 71(8), 1812-1824.

Peters, L., Cant, R., Payne, S., O’Connor, M., McDermott, F., Hood, K., … & Shimoinaba, K. (2013). How death anxiety impacts nurses’ caring for patients at the end of life: a review of literature. The open nursing journal, 7(1).

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.