Research analysis of Hypertension

Research analysis of Hypertension

Lo, S. H., Chau, J. P., Woo, J., Thompson, D. R., & Choi, K. C. (2016). Adherence to antihypertensive medication in older adults with hypertension. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 31(4), 296.

Background Information

The authors of this research provide comprehensive background information on adherence to antihypertensive medication in older adults with hypertension.. The study aimed to identify factors that are frequently associated with medication adherence in a group of Chinese elderly patients with essential hypertension (Lo et al. 2016). The article provides adequate information that explains the reason why they decided to conduct the research. The abstract of the article describes the objectives of the study, the design used, measurements and data collection methods, results and the conclusion. The background of the research and the introduction is capturing and attractive to the reader as it gives relevant information.

Literature Review

There is no section labeled ‘literature review’ in the article, but the introductory information and the background provide literature and past information about hypertension. The authors have defined hypertension from different perspectives and have offered previous research conducted on the same topic. From the literature, it is observed that factors affecting medication adherence are divided into internal and external (Lo et al. 2016). The authors have not only presented information from the reviewed literature but also their views on the research findings. A total of nine research articles for the past ten years are evaluated in the article, and their findings have been stipulated. The authors present their views on the research topic by using relevant research materials, but they fail to provide their views on the literature review findings.


The article presents a qualitative research sample where first-hand information was collected using a cross-sectional study in China. From the research, it is observed that a sample of 195 older adults with essential hypertension from 12 community centers in Hong Kong was used to obtain information about medication adherence (Lo et al. 2016). The authors have described the inclusion criterion for the research, and it is observed that patients older than 65 years of age were sampled.

Data Analysis

The collected data from the article was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics method. The standard probability plot and the skewness statistic presentation method were used to present the multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the analysis part, the authors have gone a step ahead to present the independent and dependent variables, and it is evident that the Morisky medication adherence scale was used to differentiate between adherent and non-adherent participants. The information provided leaves the readers with a precise method of evaluating internal and external validity.


The conclusion from the research indicates that illness perceptions among the elderly influence adherence to antihypertensive medication use (Lo et al. 2016). The authors also suggest that further research is needed on adherence to medication and that healthcare professionals are obliged to explore health education required for the elderly to promote adherence to antihypertensive medication use. The conclusion makes sense because it shows the gap that needs to be filled to eradicate the research problems.

Qualitative Research Article

Shamsi, A., Nayeri, N. D., & Esmaeili, M. (2017). Living with Hypertension: A Qualitative Research. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery, 5(3), 219.

Background Information

The author provides us with purpose statement explaining that hypertension affects many aspects of the patient’s life and it is necessary to understand the perspectives of people living with hypertension so that proper measures are taken to care for the affected individuals. The problem statement makes sense because it identifies a gap that many people do not notice while caring for patients living with hypertension (Shamsi et al. 2017). The researchers have provided a structured abstract explaining what the whole article is discussing. The abstract provides enough information about the research, and the article starts with an introduction making it relevant for study.

Review of the Literature

The article has based its knowledge on literature review where several articles from the past are analyzed. The qualitative and quantitative research literature is reviewed by the authors, and the relevant information is presented. The literature presented is recent and up to date information on the prevalence and WHO reports on hypertension are discussed in the section. A total of seven articles were reviewed in the section, and the conclusion by researchers shows that less information is available in many countries (Shamsi et al. 2017). An explanation has been provided by the literature review section which indicates the gap that the current research is trying to fill.


The research analyzed is a qualitative research type, and the study was conducted in medical centers affiliated to Tehran University as from August 2015 to April 2016. A total of 27 patients with hypertension were studied use purposeful sampling technique (Shamsi et al. 2017). The information from the sampled participants was obtained by the use of questionnaires and interviews where applicable.

Data Analysis

The data analysis method used was simple where the interviews were reviewed and sense of the whole derived from the response. Various codes were used to group information from the questionnaires and then the latent content from the codes formulated into themes to come up with the relevant data.


The conclusions from the research are based on the findings, and the authors state that patients with hypertension suffer many problems such as physical, psychological and spiritual. The use of antihypertensives is found to cause both negative and positive effects on the lives of the patients. Recommendations have been included in the conclusion. I think the conclusion is clear and gives a report on the findings from the study and it also acknowledges that further research is needed on the area.


Part B

Quantitative Research

Quantitative: Researcher’s Conclusion, Critique and Justification

The conclusion from the article outlines that perception among older adults influence adherence to antihypertensive medication use. The introductory part identifies the problem and objective of the research and it is observed that many older adults are non-adherent to antihypertensive medication use. The literature review also leads to the conclusion because there is evidence that internal and external factors lead to non-adherence to medication use.

Quantitative: Protection and Considerations

During research studies, the authors must seek consent from the relevant authorities so that the survey is legalized. For the study discussed, prior permission from the survey and Behavioral Research Ethics Committee of the university was obtained (Lo et al. 2016). Confidentiality was maintained during the study and all questionnaires provided were anonymized. Informed consent is another ethical consideration that all research papers should have before data collection.

Quantitative: Strengths and Limitations

The study used a cross-sectional method, and a large sample of the population was used thus making the research effective. The method of data collection and analysis is unique, and the findings are accounted for by the research. Limitations of the research are minimal. The results are subject to recall bias as observed insensitive questions like adherence to medication. Some changes such as illness perception affect adherence to medication, and the cross-sectional study was not quite good to lead to the conclusion.

Quantitative: Evidence Application

The research addresses a sensitive topic in healthcare provision, and the findings are essential in the nursing practice. It leaves a challenge to nurses on their role of promoting adherence to medication since most risk factors identified are modifiable. Health education to the elderly can be used to promote adherence (Schuiling-Veninga et al. 2017). Relevant bodies are also informed that hypertension is not easily managed in the elderly as a result of non-adherence.

Qualitative research

Qualitative: Researcher’s conclusion, Critique and Justification

The authors conclude that patients with hypertension suffer many problems to include physical, psychological, social and spiritual aspects of health. The conclusion can be supported by the body of the research because the problem statement of the study identified the gap discussed. From the literature review section, it was found that various researches indicate silent suffering of people living with hypertension. The research methodology used includes individuals having hypertension for at least two years, indicating that the information provided is legit.

Qualitative: Protection and Considerations

During research studies, the authors must seek consent from the relevant authorities so that the study is legalized. For the study discussed, prior permission from Tehran University of Medical Sciences was obtained. Confidentiality was maintained during the study and all questionnaires provided had the part owing confidentiality to patient information. Informed consent is another ethical consideration that all research papers should have before data collection (Lam et al. 2015).

Qualitative: Strengths and Limitations

The quality of research presented is excellent because of the information provided, the small sample size and the period of study utilized. The study is relevant and easy to interpret, and the authors have analyzed the data well leaving clear conclusions at the end of the study. One of the limitations observed is that participants with many years of hypertension had difficulties remembering their experiences (Shamsi et al. 2017). The sample population used is too small to make generalized conclusions on the research making it less applicable in other healthcare settings.

Qualitative: Evidence Application

The findings from the research are relative to nursing practice because they provide some of the reasons why adherence to medication is a problem in many patients. Through the research, we can acknowledge that there is far much more to be done than administration of medication to the hypertensive patients. Hypertension is a problem that leads to psychological torture especially when it becomes a lifetime disease in an individual thus the research provides information that can help alleviate suffering in patients (Hameed et al. 2016).





Schuiling-Veninga, C. C., Nguyen, T. B. Y., Vu, T. H., Wright, E. P., & Postma, M. J. (2017). Adherence to hypertension medication: Quantitative and qualitative investigations in a rural Northern Vietnamese community. PloS one12(2), e0171203.

Hameed, M. A., Dasgupta, I., & Gill, P. (2016). Poor adherence to antihypertensive drugs. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online)354.

Lam, W. Y., & Fresco, P. (2015). Medication adherence measures: an overview. BioMed Research International2015.