The Assignment: (4-5 pages not including the title and reference page)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following:

  • Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.
  • Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper.
  • Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples.
  • In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles.
  • Use APA format and include a title page.
  • Use the Safe Assign Drafts to check your match percentage before submitting your work.

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies


Clinical systems are computer-based systems that store, exchange, and analyze medical information. According to Hoffer-Hawlik et al. (2021), medical information helps improve how patients are cared for and keeps track of medical records. Moreover, it helps healthcare providers and patients communicate better. Clinical systems keep tabs on patient treatments, medicines, lab tests, and other medical details. The specific clinical system focused on in this report is telemedicine. Omboni et al. (2020) described telemedicine as a type of clinical system that uses technology to offer medical care and consultations across long distances. This system lets healthcare providers and patients talk through video, phone calls, or the Internet.

Hoffer-Hawlik et al. (2021) noted that this technology aids in diagnosing and treating patients, providing medical consultations, advice, and tracking their progress. Telemedicine can be used for follow-up visits, emergency care, and even surgeries done from afar. It can cut down on travel costs and make it easier for patients in remote or underserved areas to get medical help. Telemedicine can also lessen hospital visits and enhance the care quality for patients. This study aims to pick peer-reviewed articles on telemedicine and managing hypertension in primary care. The chosen articles will be checked for importance and quality, and a summary with key details and findings will be created for each one. This study will offer an overview of the current proof on how well telemedicine works in managing hypertension and what it means for primary care providers. Additionally, the findings will guide future strategies for managing hypertension with telemedicine.

Annotated Bibliography

Omboni, S., McManus, R. J., Bosworth, H. B., Chappell, L. C., Green, B. B., Kario, K., Logan, A. G., Magid, D. J., Mckinstry, B., Margolis, K. L., Parati, G., & Wakefield, B. J. (2020). Evidence and recommendations on the use of telemedicine for the management of arterial hypertension. Hypertension, 76(5), 1368–1383.

In this expert position paper, the authors delved into how telemedicine is used to manage arterial hypertension. They talked about the proof and suggestions for using telemedicine, which include monitoring and sending vital signs remotely, ensuring patients stick to their medication, and educating them about lifestyle and risk factors. The authors proposed that the ideal healthcare model should include video consultations and a diverse clinical team involving doctors, nurses, or pharmacists. Two positive outcomes were highlighted by the researchers. First, telemedicine expanded access to care. It offers better access to care for people in rural or distant areas, letting patients with conditions like arterial hypertension receive medical help they might not otherwise get. Second, researchers noted improved outcomes through increased patient involvement.

Omboni et al. mentioned that telemedicine boosted patient involvement by making care more convenient and flexible to access. Two efficiency improvements achieved through telemedicine were reducing the need for face-to-face visits and enhancing the efficiency and precision of treatment decisions. The authors discovered that telemedicine cut down on the need for in-person visits by enabling patients to monitor and manage their hypertension remotely. Moreover, telemedicine technology made treatment decisions more precise and efficient by gathering and analyzing patient data. One lesson learned from using telemedicine is the significance of having access to accurate data and the ability to assess it swiftly. Patients being monitored remotely must swiftly and accurately transmit data from their medical devices, like blood pressure monitors, to their healthcare provider. This allows healthcare providers to promptly analyze the data and adjust the patient’s treatment plan as needed.

Hoffer-Hawlik, M., Moran, A., Zerihun, L., Usseglio, J., Cohn, J., & Gupta, R. (2021). Telemedicine interventions for hypertension management in low-and middle-income countries: A scoping review. PLOS One16(7), e0254222.

This scoping review studied the effects of telemedicine interventions for blood pressure management in low- and middle-income countries, identifying 530 articles and including 14 studies. Results showed that most studies demonstrated improved outcomes and a significant reduction in blood pressure with telemedicine intervention. There was a second evident improvement in effect from the decrease in costs. The fact that the blood pressure patients communicated and were monitored remotely meant that the need to travel was massively reduced, making valuable savings on expenses.

A 4 year old African American male living in a rural community: BUILDING A HEALTH HISTORY

The authors concluded that telemedicine is promising, but more research is needed to establish its impact and role. Most of the studies in this review demonstrated a significant improvement in efficiencies from telemedicine. Remote communication implied that patients could be monitored promptly and effectively. The time saved from traveling to healthcare facilities was used to offer early and much-needed monitoring and treatment. This review found that telemedicine interventions for blood pressure management in low- and middle-income countries led to a significant reduction in blood pressure, with changes in systolic blood pressure ranging from 0.4 to 13.2 mmHg.


The lesson learned from this study is that telemedicine interventions for hypertension management in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) have the potential to improve health outcomes. This resource is essential because it provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the use of telemedicine in LMICs, allowing healthcare providers to make more informed decisions about these interventions. Additionally, it highlights the need for further research into the efficacy and impact of telemedicine interventions in LMICs.

Wang, J. G., Li, Y., Chia, Y. C., Cheng, H. M., Minh, H. V., Siddique, S., Sogunuru, G. P., Tay, J. C., Teo, B. W., Tsoi, K., Turana, Y., Wang, T. D., Zhang, Y. Q., & Kario, K. (2021). Telemedicine in the management of hypertension: Evolving technological platforms for blood pressure telemonitoring. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 23(3), 435–439.

In this study, the authors investigated how telemedicine could enhance the control of blood pressure. They explored the evolution of telecommunication technology, starting from telephone transmission to advanced smart mobile phone technology, and how these advancements could be utilized in hypertension management. Specifically, the article examined emerging technologies that offer more options in telemonitoring and interventions, such as interactive platforms connecting patients and healthcare professionals. Additionally, the authors suggested that telemedicine addressed the issue of inadequate hypertension management. They observed improved outcomes, noting that telemedicine maximized the utilization of antihypertensive treatment to combat atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis in individuals.

Telemedicine proves to be a more effective approach to treating hypertension. Wang et al. highlighted that the progression of telecommunication technology, transitioning from telephone transmission to smart mobile phone technology, increased efficiency by enabling remote care provision by physicians and nurses to individuals facing geographical limitations in accessing healthcare services. This technology enhanced efficiency in accessing care and provided regular guidance and monitoring of patients.

A significant lesson learned from utilizing clinical telemedicine systems is its potency in enhancing blood pressure control in patients who otherwise wouldn’t receive adequate care. Moreover, telemedicine offers a convenient and reliable platform for healthcare professionals to monitor and manage hypertension and other chronic conditions, offering timely advice and interventions to ensure patients adhere to their prescribed treatments. This resource is advantageous for medical professionals and patients alike as it provides an overview of current evidence supporting the effectiveness of telemedicine in managing hypertension, along with insights into new technologies developed to enhance telemonitoring. The article primarily discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with telemedicine and its potential to improve the management of hypertension and other chronic conditions.

Taylor, P., Berg, C., Thompson, J., Dean, K., Yuan, T., Nallamshetty, S., & Tong, I. (2022). Effective access to care in a crisis period: Hypertension control during the COVID-19 pandemic by telemedicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes6(1), 19-26.

The goal of this study was to find out how helpful telemedicine was for treating high blood pressure during the Covid-19 pandemic. Taylor and their team looked at past data from patients with high blood pressure who got care during the pandemic. They found that telemedicine helped make things better, like controlling high blood pressure, checking blood pressure levels, and sticking to medication plans. People got better at taking their medicines regularly because telemedicine let doctors keep a closer eye on their blood pressure. Doctors were able to give more detailed and personal care because they knew more about each patient’s health and could suggest treatments that fit them best.

This article is really important for our study on medical systems because it shows that telemedicine works well for treating high blood pressure. Taylor and their team stressed how crucial it is for healthcare systems to let people get quick and easy access to care that’s just right for them. Their research also proved that telemedicine can help people with high blood pressure get better control over their health and stick to their treatment plans. This proof was really helpful for our study because it showed how important medical systems are in making sure people can get the care they need during tough times.

To wrap up,

After looking at all four sources, it’s clear that telemedicine made a big difference in handling high blood pressure and other health issues, especially during the worst times of Covid-19. This medical system let healthcare providers keep track of patients’ blood pressure, health, and treatments from a distance, making care more convenient and accessible. Plus, telemedicine helped patients manage their high blood pressure better, leading to better results. It looks like telemedicine will keep being a good way to manage high blood pressure in the future.