Literature Review; Developmental Factors in Childhood and Adolescence

Literature Review; Developmental Factors in Childhood and Adolescence

Hogan, Shandra & Msall (2007)studied the dynamics in the learning environment of a family with the child or the parent having some form of disability. A longitudinal approach was used to answer the research question. The research concluded that children experience similar learning environment even with the disability, however, it observed aweak relationship with the parent. On the subject of parent disability, the research concluded that a parent’s disability reduces their school involvement. Paternal disability tended to weaken theconnection between a child and the mother explained by thediversion of resources to take care of the father. For mother-headed families, children experience similar learning environment regardless of the disability, however, the experience is inferior to atwo-parent household. The study recommended future research to focus on adolescent development with respect to paternal disability.

The study analyzed theissue of interest, thus relevant to the current medical scope. The approach used in the study was fitting to the nature of the research; it used the appropriate sample population to generate the response. Since the nature of the research would require expensive resources to facilitate if the research was based on primary data, the choice to use secondary sources are justified. The conclusion made by the research adds the pool of knowledge child development process with respect to disability in the family. Overall, the study is applicable in informed policymaking.

Salmon & Bryant (2002) noted that lack of cognitive theories behind posttraumatic stress disorder in children despite its high prevalence.They outlined the definitional variable, theprevalence in children and compared the data to the case of adults. They developed an outline for a cognitive theory to explain the phenomenon. The study concluded that diagnosis of psychopathology in the subject population requires reference to the normal development patterns. The current approaches to understanding childhood PTSD are far from developing a genuine theory framework. They recommend the development of a theory that goes beyond age sensitivity to the actual elements during the development process.

The researchers explore an area that has been previously understudied. While the problem studied is a pressing concern, there are few publications on the subject. Thus, the research is critical to the study of PTSD, it raises questions on the need to develop cognitive theories behind the medical problem. The guidance provided in the research is critical to future studies on theory development. Generally, the research is important to medical researchers and practitioners.

Boardman et al (2002) studied the relationship between low birth weight, social inputs and developmental outcomes for children in the United states. The study used longitudinal survey approach based on the Youth-Child data of 1986-1996. They used the Peabody Individual Achievement Tests of Mathematics and Reading Recognition to evaluate the outcomes. It concluded that birth weight is directly linked to thedevelopment process, social and economic controls play a role. Low birthweight meant adverse effects, while the low birth weight was associated with poor child development, medium birth weight had little effect on the child development process.

The research is relevant in that it supplement previous studies on the relationship between birth weight and child development process. It uses credible sources of data and evaluation technique to provide answers to the study problem. Jason et al target a population, which gives a clear pattern of thedevelopment process. The finding of the research is critical in understanding the variations in child development under different set-up.

Jahromi et al (2016) evaluated the factors associated with developmental functioning delays in children born to adolescent mothers. It noted that children born to adolescent mothers were at higher risk of development delays. Less is known on the development trajectories associated with developmental delays. The research used a longitudinal study to answer the research question, in conclusion, the study discovered that children with delay functioning were more likely to come from low-income families than those with normative functioning. Development delays are also common in children born to anadolescent mother with depressive symptoms and parental conflict.

A mother’s age at the time of birth has been known to affect the child’s development process. Development delays are also known to be related to family income and mother’s psychological condition. The research used tables and figures to illustrate patterns related to the study topic; this helped in the understanding of the common patterns. The methodology applied in the research is relevant to the setting under study. The findings of the research are applicable in understanding the causes of development delays and the outcome.

The studies used similar data sources; they all used secondary data gathered from reliable sources. The research was similar in the sense that they targeted a similar population, the choice of data isused to provide a way of conducting anin-depth analysis of the sample population. The use of longitudinal methods was also common in all studies, the technique allowed for comparative tools in analyzing the data. All the articles providean abstract that gives a preview of how the research is conducted and the conclusions made, each article was divided into sections. To increase the understanding of the content, the articles used tables and figures, the use of statistical data improve the authenticity of the findings. While the articles were similar in most features, they were different in terms of the study topic and analytical tools. Each research used an analytical tool that exposes the patterns related to the research questions, although the sample remained similar with respect to age group, they targeted different locations. One of the studies usedcognitive theory to explain child development with respect to PSTD.

Life-span perspective relates human development stages as determined by different frameworks. Such aspects include the socioeconomic elements, genetic, biological and environmental aspects that shapeone’s development stages. The articles focus on the environmental and the biological elements that shape a child development process. As people grow into adulthood, they become more complex. Understanding of the life-span perspective improves the understanding of the information provided in the articles. Since the articles study the relationship between the patterns in development with respect to frameworks explained in the life-span perspective, they add more information on how particular socio-economic or genetic factors may affect a child’s development. The study by Dennis, Carrie and Michael and the research by Jason et al related the rate of development ofdisability, which can be explained by the environmental component of child development. Laden et al conducted a similar research. Karen and Richard also explored the relationship between a genetic conditionand child development.





Boardman, J., Powers, D., Padilla, Y., & Hummer, R. (2002). Low Birth Weight, Social Factors, and Developmental Outcomes Among Children in the United States. Demography39(2), 353-368.

Hogan, D., Shandra, C., & Msall, M. (2007). Family developmental risk factors among adolescents with disabilities and children of parents with disabilities. Journal Of Adolescence30(6), 1001-1019.

Jahromi, L., Umaña-Taylor, A., Updegraff, K., & Zeiders, K. (2016). Trajectories of Developmental Functioning Among Children of Adolescent Mothers: Factors Associated With Risk for Delay. American Journal On Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities121(4), 346-363.

Salmon, K., & Bryant, R. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: The influence of developmental factors. Clinical Psychology Review22(2), 163-188.