How to write a nursing essay on drug abuse (Solved)

How to write a nursing essay on drug abuse (Solved)

Opioid Dependency

The 28-year-old male suffers from opioid use disorder. The diagnosis of this disease is based on the American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 comprising of craving to use opioids notwithstanding the professional and social side effects. Chronic opioid increases the risk of opioid dependency among patients diagnosed with epilepsy and obsessive compulsive disorder in the US (Dydyk et al., 2021). Examples of opioids include morphine and heroin. Clinical interventions for this disorder include a cognitive-behavioural intervention as with other chronic illnesses. Patients are offered psychological support, education, and medication during rehabilitation. Substitution therapy involving the replacement of an opioid with a less-addictive long-lasting opioid such as methadone and buprenorphine is also integrated into rehabilitation. Methadone reduces craving and the euphoric effect, while buprenorphine reduces mortality and morbidity of the patients. Differential diagnoses of opioid use disorder include substance use disorder and chronic pain disorders.

Part 2

The efferent nerve pathways are neurons that transmit brain signals from the central nervous system (CNS) to various sensory organs in the body while, afferent pathways are neurons that receive information from sensory organs and transmit the impulses to the CNS (Imai & Katagiri, 2022). Somatogenic pain results from somatogenic injuries due to infection or trauma and is divided into two categories; neuropathic and nociceptive pain (Petrushenko & Luk’yanetz, 2019). Nociception is detecting painful stimuli through the neural feedback system that sends the CNS signals in both passive and active settings (Armstrong & Herr, 2019). Hyperalgesia refers to enhanced pain sensitivity and response due to injuries or chemical changes in the pain-sensing neurons (Mercadante et al., 2019).

Naloxone manages opioid toxicity by reversing the respiratory damage from opioid dependency (Jordan & Morrisonponce, 2021). Its high affinity for the mu-opioid receptor facilitates the reversal of opioid’s effects. Naloxone’s half-life is 30-120 minutes depending on the administration method, the fastest being intravenous (IV) administration. The signs of reversal are observable within minutes of consumption.


Armstrong, S. A., & Herr, M. J. (2019). Physiology, nociception.

Dydyk, A. M., Jain, N. K., & Gupta, M. (2021). Opioid use disorder. StatPearls [Internet].

Imai, J., & Katagiri, H. (2022). Regulation of systemic metabolism by the autonomic nervous system consisting of afferent and efferent innervation. International immunology34(2), 67-79.

Jordan, M. R., & Morrisonponce, D. (2017). Naloxone.

Petrushenko, O. A., & Luk’yanetz, O. O. (2019). Some physiological mechanisms functioning in models of pain-related processes. Neurophysiology51(3), 223-231.

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