How to write a nursing AN3001 paper- Indigenous Cultures: Key Concepts and Issues (Solved)

How to write a nursing AN3001 paper- Indigenous Cultures: Key Concepts and Issues (Solved)


Anthropology refers to the holistic study of humankind. Social anthropology emphasizes the social dimensions of human life (Brown et al., 2020). Anthropologists use unique perspectives to conduct their research. The anthropological perspective used is field observation, whereby ideas, morals, practices, and systems within cultures are studied by the anthropologist who has lived within the community for a few years. It’s observed that People of the Java and Medan villages have better opportunities than Suku Anak Dalam, who has been socially excluded from society by being discriminated against by other communities. Others are provided with job opportunities while they are neglected and insulted. Their livelihood and dignity are compromised by people referring to them as orang Kubu which means moving huts. Members of society do not purchase the products they are selling.

Item 2

Indigenous communities widely share their knowledge. It is transmitted orally through narration, storytelling, art, music, and ceremonies. They share knowledge through creative activities to build relationships with other non-indigenous communities to promote peaceful cohesion. As a means of preserving their identity, skills and knowledge are passed down through the generations (Haines et al., 2015). Community participation and relations between members are fostered when they engage in various creative activities. Also, the core values acceptable to the community are upheld.

Item 3

Indigenous knowledge is a body of collective, comprehensive, and adaptable knowledge that is geographically and culturally contextualized. It is shared through oral tradition and evolves to meet the required conditions (Haines et al., 2015). Indigenous knowledge sharing represents cultural practices because it encompasses these communities’ wisdom, knowledge, and teachings. Stories, traditions, folklore, rituals, songs, and even laws convey certain types of information. Therefore, the community’s way of life (culture) is enhanced through knowledge sharing. The knowledge-sharing process is dynamic, practical common sense, based on teachings and experiences in one generation to another (Haines et al., 2015). It’s holistic and ensures that cultural beliefs are maintained through everyday activities.

Item 4

Outsiders view the Suku Anak Dalam community without regard to humanity. They refer to them as orang Kubu (savages), which is insulting. To them, orang Kubu is the moving huts that they move around with from time to time. The members feel powerless and cannot do anything concerning the verbal insults they receive. They have been subjected to intimidation and discrimination, making them ashamed, humiliated, and sad. They are denied job opportunities while their counterparts are given. They attempt to improve their livelihood by selling products but fail because outsiders do not buy their products and insult them about them. The Suku Anak Dalam community feels that they are people just like the outsiders and should be treated as human beings with respect and dignity.

Item 5

Social exclusion is a word that describes how certain groups are consistently disadvantaged as a result of discrimination based on ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, descent, gender, age, disability, migratory status, or where they live (Sangha et al., 2019). It deprives people of the same rights and opportunities that others enjoy in society. Their potential and ability to participate in society are diminished increasing poverty rates. Economic growth is restrained by the outsiders who don’t purchase their goods, improving their income and escaping poverty. Land grabbing denies people access to the resource, making investing in farming impossible. Accessing healthcare services and education is hindered by social exclusion, which affects the people’s economy.

Item 6

Every language in the world is impacted by a thought pattern specific to the culture or the people’s collective conventions and beliefs. Language is reflective of an individual culture and thought the speaker’s identity. In a culture, cultural views regarding the nature and social worth of gender disparities in competencies and attributes influence both gender division of labor and gender inequality. When people’s rights and dignity aren’t respected and protected, they can’t use their voices or interact. As a result, social exclusion encompasses not just material deprivation but also a loss of agency or control over major decisions and emotions of alienation and inadequacy. People cannot effectively express themselves if they are afraid of repercussions.

Item 7

Data is gathered while the anthropologist interacts daily with the people of a particular community. Because it’s tough to deal with culturally extremely different people, cultural anthropologists conduct the study by establishing long-term personal ties. Obtaining adequate insight into a particular community is not possible with short visits (Brown et al., 2020). Living among community members allows them to be comfortable enough to carry out their daily activities without feeling that they are being studied. Extended periods of fieldwork lead to the establishment of rapport and acceptance of the researcher to the community enabling them to cooperate in interviews and answer questions.

 Item 8

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a collection of eight goals with quantifiable targets and clear timetables for improving the lives of the world’s poorest people (Tauli-Corpuz et al., 2010). Policies and programs were developed to enhance the social exclusion of indigenous communities. Some programs include the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) which aims to promote worldwide cooperation in education, research, and culture to bring about peace. It ensures that every child of every citizen gets access to education promotes the cultural heritage and dignity of all cultures hence strengthening the bonds between all communities.

Established in 2000, the United Nations Permanent Conference on Indigenous Concerns (UNPFII) is a multilateral forum that addresses indigenous issues about economic and social development and culture and the environment and education, health, and human rights. It provides expert advice and recommendations on indigenous issues to the United Nations General Assembly and various United Nations programs, funds, and agencies. The organization also contributes to public awareness-raising efforts while encouraging the integration and coordination of initiatives to improve the well-being of those communities. The forum fulfills its objectives by preparing and disseminating knowledge about indigenous issues. Promotes the complete and unconditional application of the provisions of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the efficacy of that Declaration and monitors its implementation.

Item 9

The MDGs programs and policies included the cultural input of indigenous communities promoting the holistic approach. The goals will address areas affecting the minority indigenous communities that might be neglected if the input is not sought. Achieving MDGs goals is accelerated due to the raised awareness and increased community participation. (Tauli-Corpuz et al., 2010). Eradication of poverty and hunger, along with ensuring gender equity, is one of the major issues affecting indigenous communities. Their participation allows development actions to address these issues.

Item 10

Their sense of cultural identity greatly influences people’s happiness. It provides a sense of belonging and security to those who identify with a specific culture. Moreover, it grants them access to social networks that support them and share common values and objectives. It is important to identify rather than define indigenous culture due to the negative connotations, causing some people to fail to reveal their origin or define their origin. Invaluable knowledge, unique language, and beliefs that these people hold will be lost if they are afraid to reveal their origin. Another benefit of knowing is that it relates the survival of every human being to the entirety of nature and the ingredients that sustain life on the planet. A realistic solution to the people’s concerns is provided in concrete situations of communities concerning the environment.

Item 11

To increase the quality of public policies, programs, and projects while assuring a more effective allocation of resources, mainstreaming is a method that has been implemented (Sangha et al., 2019). The majority of indigenous tribes have been socially marginalized, and they have been unable to escape poverty or thrive economically in recent years. Establishing working connections and dialogues with indigenous people and their organizations is beneficial to plan ahead of time, either at a program level or when developing individual initiatives with indigenous communities and their organizations (Sangha et al., 2019). As a result, attention and preparation are being directed to rectifying the lack of effective connection with indigenous populations.

An increasing proportion of minorities and indigenous people live in urban areas and can contribute to growth and development under the right circumstances. Mainstreaming of the indigenous culture occurs when they are involved in the decision-making and policy formulation process livelihood, capabilities, social, spiritual, and cultural values. The policymakers have initiated steps to promote economic participation and the welfare of the indigenous communities. Legislative reforms and monitoring discrimination tools of the communities are being enforced. Inclusiveness, improved political participation, community activism, and increased freedom for indigenous communities have enhanced mainstreaming of the culture.

Item 12

Indigenous peoples have a specific right to freely agree after being fully informed about the situation (FPIC). It guarantees that the organization takes Indigenous issues into account and promotes them in its work. The policy’s guiding principles are self-determination and respect for Indigenous Peoples’ knowledge, customs, and traditional practices, which contribute to sustainable and equitable development. It allows people to approve or disapprove of a project that may impact them or their property. After they have given their consent, they have the right to withdraw it at any moment. They can also use FPIC to negotiate project design, implementation, monitoring, and assessment agreements. This is also protected under the human right to self-determination.


Brown, N., McIlwraith, T., & de González, L. T. (2020). Doing Fieldwork: Methods in Cultural Anthropology. Perspectives: An Open Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, 2nd Edition.

Haines, J., Du, J. T., & Trevorrow, E. (2015, July). Indigenous knowledge sharing and relationship building through narrative storytelling and creative activities. In Indigenous Content in Education Symposium 2015 (Vol. 1, No. 1).

Sangha, K. K., Russell-Smith, J., & Costanza, R. (2019). Mainstreaming indigenous and local communities’ connections with nature for policy decision-making. Global ecology and conservation19, e00668.

Tauli-Corpuz, V., Enkiwe-Abayao, L., & Chavez, R. (2010). Indigenous peoples and the millennium development goals. Towards an Alternative Development Paradigm: Indigenous Peoples’ Self-Determined Development, Baguio City: Tebtebba Foundation (Indigenous Peoples’ International Centre for Policy Research and Education), 513-540.

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