How to write a Critical Reflection of Globalization and Neoliberalism’s Impact on Global Health (Solved)
Introduction: Globalization is a process whereby businesses, individuals, and countries become more connected and dependent on each other through cultural diffusion, travel, raised economic integration, and communication exchange. To determine the relationship of globalization to health, one has to understand economic globalization. Neoliberalism goes beyond economic aspects, encompassing social, cultural, and political effects (Baru and Mohan., 2018). This paper will discuss how globalization and neoliberalism impact health care.
Proponents of globalization have illustrated how increased trade and wealth creation improve health (Spiegel et al., 2022). The revenue generated is used for investment in key health determinants, for example, gender-equity services, education, and health care services.
World Trade Organization (WTO) controls economic globalization. Proper economic globalization is well advanced and mobile in terms of capital movement within its global market, trading goods, and services, such as health care services (Spiegel et al., 2022). General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) is a World Trade Organization with provisions specified for a given country. It indicates health services to be liberalized under given circumstances and in what conditions (Spiegel et al., 2022). The services are divided into four modes; Cross- border delivery of trade, Consumption of health services abroad, commercial presence, and movement of national persons.
Conceptualizing liberalism will depict its influence on health inequities. There are three interlinked faces: political, intellectual/academic faces and bureaucratic, which are necessary for analyzing neoliberalism affecting individuals and institutions. Studies have shown how neoliberal policy instruments have influenced economic and social sectors, including privatization, deregulation, and marketization (Baru and Mohan., 2018). However, for health, through Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP), there has been restructuring of public sectors to profit-focused institutions, which catered for inequalities in availability, affordability, acceptability, and accessibility of healthcare services.
An excellent example of disparities in availability, affordability, acceptability, and accessibility of healthcare services is at Kibera, one of the mega slums in Kenya, Africa. There is a large number of women affected with HIV/AIDS. Regardless of their condition, they have to take care of themselves and their children (Vantyler & Shields, 2022). Also, they suffer stigmatization, violation of human rights discrimination, punitive laws, and lack of access to health services and food, which worsens the condition. For effective management of HIV/Aids, there is a need to access essential prerequisites of health, for example, food, shelter, a safe environment, and education.
Due to evident interdependence between humanity and planetary health, nurses need to reframe professional masteries from global nursing to planetary nursing (Rosa & Upvaall, 2022). Global nursing addresses health needs at the individual and population levels. In contrast, planetary nursing focuses health needs of individuals at the population level encompassing the needs of the ecosystem and nonliving things at large (Rosa & Upvaall, 2022). It requires paradigmatic shit of the teaching, practice, leading, and serving styles to transform from global to planetary nursing. Planetary nursing is an effective model for nurses, which caters needs of individuals and the ecosystem at both local and planetary levels.
Trade is associated with wealth creation. Through globalization, individuals connect and do business worldwide (Spiegel et al., 2022. The income generated is invested to crucial determinants of health in those regions. These include; gender-equity services, education, and health care services.
True economic globalization is when a migratory movement of capital, goods, and services within the stipulated region (Spiegel et al., 2022. An example of services is health services, which are moved or accessed according to the agreement; it’s divided into four, i.e., cross-border delivery of trade, Consumption of health services abroad, commercial presence, and movement of national persons. Moreover, restructuring public sectors to profit-focused institutions has catered for inequalities in availability, affordability, acceptability, and accessibility of healthcare services (Baru and Mohan., 2018).
Human health depends on planetary health. This scenario creates the need for nurses to focus on planetary nursing abandoning global nursing (Rosa & Upvaall, 2022). They must change their practice, teaching, leading, and serving styles to favor planetary nursing.
Poverty is a significant cause of poor health. Poverty is associated with disparities in gender-equity services, education, and healthcare. With these in the region, residents won’t have equal opportunities to access and afford healthcare services. One way of eliminating poverty is by instituting trade in the area affected.
Poor health is associated with disparities of health determinants, mainly associated with poverty (Fafael, 2022). Poverty can be alleviated by starting trade in regions affected. The revenue from the trade can be reinvested to key determinants of health, for example, education, health care services, and gender equity services. An educated and economically stable society is more likely to make healthcare services available, affordable, accessible, and acceptable.
Due to the interdependence between humanity and planetary health, there is a need to change from global nursing to planetary nursing. This requires paradigmatic shit of the teaching, practice, leading, and serving style.
Baru and Mohan Health Research Policy and Systems 2018, 16(Suppl 1):91
Spiegel, J., Labonte, R., & Ostry, A. (2022). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 5 February 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/SU6001.pdf.
Rosa, W., & Upvaall, M. (2022). The change paradigm in nursing: growth versus persistence. The change paradigm in nursing: growth versus persistence | Meta. Retrieved 5 February 2022, from https://khepri-node.dev.meta-infra.org/papers/the-change-paradigm-in-nursing-growth-versus/6794427.
Vantyler, S., & Shields, L. (2022). Stories of African HIV+ Women Living in Poverty. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 5 February 2022, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07399332.2013.862797.
Fafael, A. (2022). Globalization and Global Health: Toward Nursing Praxis in…: Advances in Nursing Science. LWW. Retrieved 5 February 2022, from http://journals.lww.com/advancesinnursingscience/Abstract/2006/01000/Globalization_and_Global_Health__Toward_Nursing.2.aspx.
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