How to write a comorbidities and risk factors awareness nursing essay

How to write a comorbidities and risk factors awareness nursing essay

Introduction: Health promotion is an activity aimed at empowering people as communities or individuals to control their health. Health issues are affected by various factors in the social, cultural, biological or political environment. Through health promotion, individuals understand the benefits of choosing healthy behaviours and reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases or other commodities. It’s aimed at improving the life quality and protecting individuals by protecting through the prevention of conditions before they occur. Chronic kidney disease is a global health concern. Young adults who have been diagnosed with this condition experience physical, family and psychological challenges that limit the quality of their lives. Health promotion will engage longer lives and decrease mortality rates.

Description of Target Population

The incidence rate of ESRD in the young population was high when compared to the global rate of 21.1 per million person-years (Saran et al., 2017). Beginning in young adulthood, cardiovascular disease mortality accounts for over 40% of all deaths in patients with ESRD. Their mortality occurs due to other comorbidities, mostly cardiovascular causes such as hypertension, coronary artery diseases, heart failure and diabetes. This paper focuses on educating young adults diagnosed with chronic kidney disease on the risk factors and comorbidities that can develop. The development of non-communicable diseases can be prevented when they have knowledge of the risk factors attributed and modify their behaviours.

Project Rationale

The young populations are the backbone of society. They can engage in several activities which enhance the economy and progress the nation forward. However, they are also faced with health challenges that can impede their goals and dreams. Despite the rising cases of ESRF and diagnosis of CKD, the screening and awareness of the condition within the general population are low. People do not utilize the services available such as urine albumin testing, which could help prevent the progression development and facilitate early treatment leading to burdens and increased health expenditure (Santana et al., 2021). Increasing public awareness of risk factors empowers people to take action and take responsibility for their own health, thereby assisting in the diversion of scarce resources.

Healthy People agenda 2030 is a national effort that sets goals and objectives to improve the health and well-being of people in the United States. Communities can get access to information concerning various conditions leading to the adoption of healthy habits, hence reducing risk factors and decreasing mortality rates of preventable disorders. Achieving optimal health and well-being across the life span of all individuals require not only the government’s efforts but active participation by community members(Santana et al., 2021). The project goal is to reduce the health burden attributed to chronic kidney disease and its related complications by creating awareness of the risk factors to the public. This aligns with the health people 2030 plan that aims to promote healthy development, healthy behaviours, well-being and prevention of diseases across the lifespan.

Health Promotion Theories models

The health belief model directs health promotion and illness prevention efforts. The methodology has been modified to develop both long-term and short-term health behaviors. It is based on the notion that an individual will perform a health-related action if they believe that a negative health state can be averted (Nooriani et al., 2019). Also, if the individuals have a positive explanation that by adopting a recommended health action, they would avoid a negative health action, and if they believe they are capable of implementing a recommended health action confidently and comfortably. The model’s key elements include perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived beliefs, and perceived barriers, which account for individual willingness to act.

Clearly defining the population at risk based on one’s features and behaviours will influence one’s opinion of getting a condition and heighten the low susceptibility. Specifying the consequences of the risk and condition enables individuals to access the seriousness of the disorder, which will enable them to implement the advised health action. This is possible if they know how, where, when to take action with the positive effects expected explained. Barriers to taking health action are identified and reduced for effective outcomes (Nooriani et al., 2019). Cues of action have also been added to the model, activating readiness and stimulating overt behaviour. The concept of self-efficacy has also been added, and it involves one’s ability to act successfully.

Policy and Regulatory Considerations

The policy is defined as a set of standing principles intended to guide action or inaction (Lewinski et al., 2018). Health policies are authoritative decisions to the health. It includes directives and goals for promoting the health of citizens through creating awareness and education. It can be public health policy or healthcare policy. Healthcare policies and procedures are designed to promote consistency in day-to-day operational activities. They are vital in providing clarity when dealing with concerns and actions that are critical to health and safety, as well as legal liabilities and regulatory requirements. The policy should lay the groundwork for providing great care that is both safe and cost-effective.. The project will adhere to the health policies by ensuring that resources are used efficiently and effectively.

Institutional policies govern workplaces, i.e. how it operates and their institutional goals. The target population involves young adults already diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure. Hospitals are institutions that emphasize on confidentiality and privacy of the patients. Seeking permission to access the patient’s records and names should be sought to adhere to the institutional policies in place (Lewinski et al., 2018). Also, HIPPA rules will be adhered to by seeking consent from the patients if they want to participate and not divulging their health information to parties not involved to avoid a breach of the rules.

Program Description

Planning is a process of setting objectives and deciding how best to achieve them. It’s a proactive process. Planning entails defining the objectives/mission, which lays the foundation for the project. The environment should be analyzed; objectives and goals should be set and analyzed through SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). Strategies for achieving the objectives should be developed and the best chosen. Logically developed strategies are implemented to enable the achievement of the desired performance. Process of monitoring and evaluation is done to ensure the proper functioning of the project.

The program’s goal is to create awareness of the comorbidities, risk factors awareness and education of young adults with chronic kidney failure and end-stage renal failure. Specific interventions include identifying comorbidities such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes and infections. Conduct adequate research on the common comorbidities that cardiovascular disease has been attributed as the leading cause of death among these patients. The risk factors of cardiovascular disease include smoking tobacco, increased glucose levels, obesity, alcohol drinking and high blood pressure.

The target population is educated on the need to avoid a sedentary lifestyle. Physical exercises such as walking or cycling enhance weight loss and prevent obesity. The need of developing a healthy diet and adhere to it is emphasized. Patients diagnosed with CKD and ESRF ensure that they restrict proteins, water and phosphate in their diets. Potassium and sodium restrictions should be done by ensuring that the food they take has low amounts of salt. Vitamin foods are restricted because they contain potassium at high levels. The kidneys are already damaged and cannot excrete these substances (Major et al., 2018). Carbohydrates are, however, not restricted. The patients should understand that prolonging life and being healthy is dependent on them to ensure that they follow the restrictions.

Young adults at risk by having a family history of chronic renal disease should undergo regular urine testing. This is a secondary prevention measure to identify the disease before it occurs and take measures to halt or stop its progression. Pressure monitoring will be done by encouraging the patients to attend local clinics to be measured and recorded. Conduct regular blood and glucose testing to maintain it within normal ranges (Major et al., 2018). Educate them to ensure that they adhere to the compliance of medications and dialysis. These behavioural techniques will promote their health by enabling them to manage the symptoms.

Implementing these programs will require utilizing time, human resources and machines. Health facilities should establish days within the week to conduct regular glucose and blood pressure monitoring. Machines should be in proper functioning to ensure accurate results. Urine testing is done for the population who are at risk. Limited availability of resources does not allow every young adult to be tested; therefore the minimal resources are used to ensure a greater impact. Healthcare personnel should be trained to provide safe, timely, effective, efficient and patient-centred care.

Approaches utilized

The behavioral change method is built on changing people’s attitudes and behaviors in order for them to live a healthier lifestyle. This approach views health as an individual responsibility. Methods used include communicating, education and persuasion or motivation. Educating people on the importance of cessation of smoking or alcohol drinking and adherence to diet restrictions are examples. Also, the significance of physical exercises. The knowledge should be communicated in clear and simple terms to enable the patients to understand and implement the recommended action (Loer, 2019). According to this viewpoint, a healthy lifestyle is in the best interests of individuals, and health professionals espousing this viewpoint will regard it as their obligation to urge as many people as possible to choose the healthy lifestyle they advise.

Medical intervention strives to release people from medically defined diseases and impairments or to improve the overall quality of their lives through the application of scientific principles. Medical interventions are used to prevent or alleviate illness in this strategy (Loer, 2019). Using a convincing paternalistic approach, such as urging patients to do regular blood pressure and glucose monitoring, could be used to help patients. Patients’ compliance with pharmacological treatment is also important, as is the screening of persons at risk for chronic kidney disease by urine testing. Patients’ compliance with suggested procedures and the medical profession’s responsibility to guarantee that they do so are important aspects of this strategy.

Program Evaluation

Evaluation is necessary to determine if the goal has been achieved and the programs were effective. The effect of a program on its participants is assessed through an impact evaluation. Changes in awareness, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills are all examples of appropriate interventions. The program will be successful when the patient’s knowledge of the risk factors and comorbidities associated with CKD and ESRF(Loer, 2019). Also, if they demonstrate behaviour change or modification, reducing the risk factors associated with these conditions, such as adhering to the diet restrictions. Data gathered from the patients should show decreased cases of CKD and improved outcomes for the patients.

Young adults are a distinct demographic that necessitates particular clinical and research attention in order to achieve better outcomes. Optimizing health care for underlying renal disease and other concomitant illnesses before the beginning of ESRD in this young adult population may be one of the modifiable risk factors for this demographic. Health care providers should provide regular health education and awareness training to their patients in order to reduce the likelihood of comorbidities in these individuals. Attempting to regulate emerging risk factors in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has the potential to slow not only the progression of renal disease but also the occurrence of cardiovascular events, which are the leading cause of mortality worldwide.


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