Evidence Table Worksheet

Evidence Table Worksheet

  1. PICOT Question:

In geriatric patients, how is mental status examination more effective than clinical observation in the prevention of loneliness and boredom during patientassessment? The comparison group will entail patients undergoing clinical observation. Time is relatively not appropriate with my question since it a less determinant in the determination of the instances of boredom and loneliness among the elderly patients.

II.   Evidence Synthesis


 (database) ex:


Study #1 Study #2 Study #3 Study #4 Study #5 Synthesis
(p) Population Older adults Geriatrics above 65 years old. Oder adults of 60 years and above Elderly patients 65 years and above People fromage 15 to 75+ Elderly persons above age 65


Mental status assessment via use of loneliness and geriatric depression scales. Clinical observation Mental status examination Clinical observation Clinical assessment Mental assessment to determine loneliness and boredom


Patient undergoing clinical observation. Mental health assessment Other cognitive impairment assessment tools Mental assessment No comparison Clinical  assessment to determine the variables
(o) Outcome Early determination of loneliness Determination of loneliness Determination of cognitive impairment Determination of social problems Determination of loneliness Identification of loneliness and other mental health impairment.
(t) time The period of assessment. Period of assessment During assessment Period of assessment Period of assessment. The studies made their determination and conclusion during the time of assessment of the patint.




III.   Evaluation Table


Citation Design Sample size: Adequate? Major Variables:




Study findings:

Strengths and weaknesses

Level of evidence Evidence Synthesis
Wang, G., Hu, M., Xiao, S. Y., & Zhou, L. (2017). Cross-sectional study The study used a sample size of 839 which is adequate. Loneliness, depressive symptoms, depressive episodes. With high prevalence of depressive disorders and loneliness, the findings were substantial as they were also in line with previous studies. The outcome of the study is limited to Hunan County in China. Various clinical examinations also leads to determination of loneliness in adults.
Due, Sandholdt, Siersma, & Waldorff, (2018). Cross-sectional study design. 767 eligible sample was used which is adequate for the study. Perception on social relations and loneliness By obtaining views from 447 patients out of the included 476, the findings are substantial in clinical examination of the variables. Less evidence was determined to ascertain the relationship between social participation and loneliness. It is difficult to obtain information from individuals with low social participation which may hinder clinicalobservation.
Cummings‐Vaughn, Chavakula, Malmstrom, Tumosa, Morley& Cruz‐Oliver, (2014). Cross-sectional study Sample size of 136 was used which was inadequate Dementia, moderate cognitive impairment The mental assessment tools were reliable in assessing the mental status. High reliability of use of short test of mental status was determined. Mental status examination is reliable in the determination of both cognitive impairment as well as dementia.
Tak, Hespen, Verhaak, Eekhof,& Hopman‐Rock, (2016). Descriptive study design 180 patients were used as the sample size. The variables included cognition,loneliness,depression, anxiety and suspicion From the assessment of 180 patients, observation list for mental condition and social problems was developed. There existed convergent validity for the indicator list and via the use of subscales for the determined variables. Various care settings can use the observational list for social problems and mental disorders to assess patients.
Richard, Rohrmann, Vandeleur, Schmid, Barth, J., & Eichholzer, (2017). Cross-sectional study 20, 007 participants were used and the sample was adequate for the study. Loneliness, physical characteristics,

Mental status,

Lifestyle characteristics

Loneliness existed with significant display in the extreme ages. In the assessment of loneliness, the method used for examination ought to display the association between the variable and various health determinants. The loneliness in individuals in is caused by both physical and mental status thus can be assess via both observation and mental examination.




Cummings‐Vaughn, L. A., Chavakula, N. N., Malmstrom, T. K., Tumosa, N., Morley, J.

E., & Cruz‐Oliver, D. M. (2014). Veterans Affairs Saint Louis University

mental status examination compared with the Montreal cognitive assessment and

the short test of mental status. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society62(7),


Due, T. D., Sandholdt, H., Siersma, V. D., & Waldorff, F. B. (2018). How well do

general practitioners know their elderly patients’ social relations and feelings of

loneliness?. BMC Family Practice19(1), 34

Richard, A., Rohrmann, S., Vandeleur, C. L., Schmid, M., Barth, J., & Eichholzer, M.

(2017). Loneliness is adversely associated with physical and mental health and

lifestyle factors: Results from a Swiss national survey. PloS one12(7),


Tak, E. C., Hespen, A. T., Verhaak, P. F., Eekhof, J., & Hopman‐Rock, M. (2016).

Development and preliminary validation of an Observation List for detecting

mental disorders and social Problems in the elderly in primary and home care

(OLP). International journal of geriatric psychiatry31(7), 755-764.

Wang, G., Hu, M., Xiao, S. Y., & Zhou, L. (2017). Loneliness and depression among

rural empty-nest elderly adults in Liuyang, China: a cross-sectional study. BMJ

            open7(10), e016091.