Debriefing after Codes PICOT

Debriefing after Codes PICOT


Debriefing after a critical event is a crucial process within a care center such as an emergency care unit concerning the various incidences that usually erupt in the process of care provision. With the various literatures used to assess the significance of the practice, it is as well vital to review the articles and compare the different aspects that they present. The review in literature does not only to inform the researcher of what is already done and is know but also goes to a greater extent in equipping him or her with knowledge concerning the topic. It is through the review that the researcher also gets guided in the manner to proceed with the research to achieve its objectives. This review dwells on the comparisons of studies conducted on debriefing after codes to determine the aspects covered in them as well as their impact on the overall nursing practice. These will eventually improve the quality and safety of care that the patients will be subjected to.

Comparison of research questions

The study conducted by Bastos et al.(2015) inquired on the effectiveness of debriefing in controlling psychological trauma when compared to the standard post-natal care. By answering this question, the significance of debriefing in mothers after delivery will be determined. On the other hand, Johnson questioned on the importance of debriefing as a method of reducing the negative impact of stress among nurses in the emergency department and enhances staff retention. The inquiry by Johnson is related to the one posed by  Schmidt, & Haglund,(2017) which revolved around the recognition of personal debriefing as an intervention for the prevention of compassion fatigue in staffs within the emergency department.

Hanna & Romana, (2014), however, focused their interrogation on the period of situating the debriefing sessions within a hospital setting. The determination of the essentiality of the sessions especially after codes would benefit its implementation since it would have positive impacts on the staff members. Their inquiry can be compared to the assumption placed by Coutinho, Martins & Pereira, (2016) on the role that the process plays to the participants. The questions and assumptions by Talbot as well as Pivec are also focused on the roles that debriefing has on its participants. By answering all these questions, the studies are likely to impact the care that is being provided by the emergency department as it can influence both implementation and adoption of the debriefing process.

Comparison of sample populations

The various articles used various sample sizes that fitted their objectives. Schmidt & Haglund, (2017) used one nurse’s experience. This choice was guided by the fact that they wanted to explore the effect of personal debriefing in reducing fatigue among the staff members in the emergency unit. Coutinho, Martins & Pereira (2016) on the other hand used a sample size of 22 participants. They composed of final year students who were pursuing their undergraduate degree in nursing. The other six articles used reviews of literature from the relevant articles to obtain their data.

Comparison of the limitations of the study

In their study, Coutinho, Martins & Pereira (2016) used a sample of 22 participants which is relatively a smaller number. This number makes the study less representative hence cannot be generalized to other populations. A case study conducted by Schmidt & Haglund, (2017) used only one nurse’s experience to determine the impact of personal debriefing in reducing fatigue. Despite the fact that the method fitted their objective of determining the personal impact, it makes the study less reliable in determining the overall impact of debriefing in other nurses within the same department. This claim can be based on the fact that the outcome of such a study can be influenced by individual factors exhibited by the nurse used in the case study. At the same time, the study cannot be generalized to other groups in the emergency department or other institutions since it does not reflect a general picture of the nursing staffs in the emergency department.

Conclusion and Recommendations

It is critical to provide an avenue for debriefing within care centers especially in the environments where there are various stressful activities such as the emergency departments. Besides the use of debriefing, various aspects of the process must be put into consideration for improvement as well as for research purposes. According to Coutinho, Martins & Pereira (2016), structured debriefing elicits more inquiry during the process hence this can be applied to ensure efficiency of the process. At the same time, the study poses an area of search to determine the features of a standard debriefing process to come up with tools that would pave the way for structured debriefing. Johnson Pivec, (2015) on the other hand determined the need for further studies in various areas surrounding debriefing. These areas included the environment, process, roles of the students and the facilitators, the model as well as a theoretical framework for debriefing. It is from such studies that debriefing will turn to be efficient in both used and impact to the staff members within the medical set up.




Bastos, M. H., Bick, D., Rowan, C. J., Small, R., & McKenzie-McHarg, K. (2015). Debriefing for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2. Retrieved from

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2013). HCAHPS: Patients’ perspectives of care survey. Retrieved November3. Retrieved from

Coutinho, V. R. D., Martins, J. C. A., & Pereira, F. (2016). Structured debriefing in nursing simulation: students’ perceptions. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice6(9), 127.

Hanna, D. R., & Romana, M. (2014). Debriefing after a crisis. Nursing management38(8), 38-42 Retrieved from

Johnson Pivec, C. R. (2015). Debriefing after simulation: Guidelines for faculty and students. Retrieved from

Johnson, A. (2016). Debriefing in the Emergency Department. Retrieved from  https            ://

Punch, L. (2013). Nursing simulation: The art and science of debriefing with a demonstration for advanced education. Retrieved from

Schmidt, M., & Haglund, K. (2017). Debrief in Emergency Departments to Improve Compassion Fatigue and Promote Resiliency. Journal of Trauma Nursing24(5), 317-322. Retrieved from

Talbot, C. (2016). Debriefing critical incidents in the Emergency Department. Retrieved from

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