B vitamins vital use to the body
Different kinds of B vitamins are important and good for the body. The vitamins have different functions in the body and help organs and processes work better. Also, not getting enough or too much of these vitamins can make you sick or cause other problems, so it’s important to stick to the suggested dietary allowances. (RDAs). RDAs are the recommended daily amounts of vitamins that are enough for all healthy people to get what they need. (Kennedy, 2016). So, it’s important to talk about how important Vitamins B3, B12, Folate, and Choline are, what the RDA levels are, where these vitamins can be found in food, and what things affect how easily they can be absorbed.
Vitamins Are Important
Folate helps make healthy red blood cells and lowers the risk of birth problems like spina bifida that happen in the neural tube. It also helps avoid anemia caused by not getting enough folate. Together with vitamin B12 and vitamin C, they help make new proteins and DNA (National Health Service (NHS), 2020).
Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), 2020c), says that it is important for avoiding megaloblastic anemia because it is a key part of making red blood cells. In addition to making DNA, it works to keep the body’s cells and blood cells healthy. This vitamin is important for the metabolism of every cell because it plays a part in making fatty acids and making energy. It also helps the body take in folic acid, which makes it possible for energy to be released. It also hurts the body’s defenses.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) dissolves in water and is already in your body. Vitamin B6 comes in different coenzyme forms, such as pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine-5-phosphate. (PMP). These enzymes help break down carbon units, carbs, lipids, and proteins. The vitamin is also very important for brain growth. It is important to make hormones and make sure there are enough amino acids in the blood, like homocysteine. It is also needed to make gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis happen and to make hemoglobin. (ODS, 2020b).
Choline is important for many things in the body. It is needed for metabolism because it makes the methyl groups that are needed. Choline is also needed to make phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, two important phospholipids found in cell walls. It also helps make acetylcholine, which is important for memory, muscle control, and keeping your mind stable. The vitamin affects how different parts of the brain and nerve system work. (ODS, 2020a).
Allowances for a healthy diet
The RDAs are different for each age group, gender, and health state. For example, the RDA for men over 51 is 1.7mg and for women it is 1.4mg. 1.3mg for those between 19 and 50 years old. (males and females). The RDA is 0.1mg from birth to six months and 0.3mg from seven to one month. From 1 to 3 years old, it’s 0.5mg, from 4 to 8 years old, it’s 0.6mg, and from 9 to 13 years old, it’s 1.0mg. (ODS, 2020b).
How much vitamin you need each day varies on how old you are. The RDA for nursing women is 2.8mcg, for pregnant teens and women it’s 2.6mcg, and for adults and teens it’s 2.4mg. The RDA for 9–13-year-olds and 4–8-year-olds is 1.8 mcg and 1.2 mcg, respectively. For babies, the doses are 0.5 mcg, 0.9 mcg, and 0.4 mcg for children ages 1 to 3 years and from birth to 6 months. (ODS, 2020c).
It is written in micrograms. 400 mcg of food folate equivalents is the RDA for women and men over 19 years old. (DFE). The RDA for women who are pregnant is 600 mcg, and for women who are nursing, it is 500 mcg DFE. The RDA for people who drink is 600mcg DFE (NHS, 2020).
ODS (2020a) said there weren’t enough data to set an RDA for choline, but there are acceptable intakes (AI). AI is thought to be a level that can make sure people get enough food. For example, the AI for people over 19 is 550 mg per day for men and 425 mg per day for women. It is 450 mg/day during pregnancy and 550 mg/day during breastfeeding. It’s important to remember that AI is used as a reference level when there isn’t enough proof to make an RDA.
Too much or not enough of the vitamins
A lack of choline can hurt the muscles and liver and lead to hepatosteatosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (NAFLD). Most people in the US don’t get enough choline in their diets, but shortage is rare in people who are healthy and not pregnant. This is because the body makes its own choline. Body odor changes when there is too much of the vitamin. (developing a fishy odor). It also makes you throw up, sweat more, and salivate. One can also get liver damage and low blood pressure. (ODS, 2020a).
A lack of something causes tiredness, weakness, constipation, loss of hunger, losing weight, and megaloblastic anemia. It can also cause tingling, trouble keeping your balance, sadness, dementia, and confusion. It has not been shown that too much of the sickness is bad (ODS, 2020c).
Too much folate can hide the signs of not getting enough vitamin B 12 and cause damage to the nervous system. Folate shortage anemia, diarrhea, gray hair, peptic ulcers, slow growth, glossitis, and ulcers in the mouth are some of the things that can happen if you don’t get enough of it. (NHS, 2020).
It is rare for just one person to be missing this vitamin. But it is always linked to microcytic anemia, cheilosis, dermatitis, glossitis, sadness, confusion, and a weaker immune system. Too much of the vitamin can cause sensory neuropathy, dizziness, skin sores, sensitivity to light, nausea, and heartburn. These signs and symptoms depend on the amount taken. (Kennedy, 2016).
Where Vitamins Come From
There are many things that have the vitamin. This includes fish, beef, liver, potatoes, and most veggies, except for citrus. Some others are fortified cereals, chicken, starchy veggies, and fruits that aren’t citrus. (ODS, 2020b).
Broccoli, leafy green veggies, peas, kidney beans, chicken peas, liver, and cereals with added folic acid are all good places to get this vitamin. Folic acid supplements should be taken by pregnant women because it is hard to get enough from food alone. (NHS, 2020).
Meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, and grains with added iron are all good sources (ODS, 2020c).
There are many places to look. There’s pork, chicken, fish, milk, eggs, sauces, salads, and margarine. (ODS, 2020a).
Sobczyska-Malefora and Harrington (2018) say that there are many things that can make it hard for vitamins to be absorbed and used. Taking certain medicines can make it harder to absorb vitamins like B6. Theophylline and cycloserine, which are used to treat seizures, are among the drugs. For example, cycloserine causes more pyridoxine to be lost through urine. Vitamin B12 is also harder to get and harder to absorb if you have ulcers, have had surgery like a gastrostomy, have digestive problems, or take certain medicines. The medicines are metformin, cimetidine, omeprazole, and chloramphenicol. Most of the B vitamins listed above are best absorbed when they come from food. Folic acid, on the other hand, is better absorbed at 85% compared to 50% when it comes from food.So, it’s important to figure out what affects the supply of these vitamins and come up with the right plans to make sure that clients get the most out of them.
Food poverty makes it harder to get these vitamins from food. So, when this happens, most of the people get vitamin deficiency disorders and are more likely to get other diseases because their immune systems are weaker. Food poverty means that people don’t have easy access to good foods, so most of them don’t have enough to meet the AI and RDAs. It also changes the way people eat and how much they eat, which makes them more likely to get diseases caused by a lack of nutrients. (Siddiqui et al., 2020).
Bjørndal, B., Bruheim, I., Lysne, V., Ramsvik, M. S., Ueland, P. M., Nordrehaug, J. E., Nygård, O. K., & Berge, R. K. (2018). Plasma choline, homocysteine and vitamin status in healthy adults supplemented with krill oil: a pilot study. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation, 78(7-8), 527–532. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365513.2018.1512716
Kennedy D. O. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review. Nutrients, 8(2), 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020068
Office of Dietary Supplements (2020a, July 20). Choline. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/
Office of Dietary Supplements (2020b, February 24). Vitamin B6. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/
Office of Dietary Supplements (2020c, March 30). Vitamin B12. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12
National Health Service (2020, August 3). B vitamins and folic acid. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/vitamin-b/
Sobczyńska-Malefora, A., & Harrington, D. J. (2018). Laboratory assessment of folate (vitamin B9) status. Journal of clinical pathology, 71(11), 949–956. https://doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205048
Siddiqui, F., Salam, R. A., Lassi, Z. S., & Das, J. K. (2020). The Intertwined Relationship Between Malnutrition and Poverty. Frontiers in public health, 8, 453. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00453
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