Stress on the lifespan

Stress on the lifespan

Article Summary and key points

Development in adults is linked with major changes in cognitive functional and emotional aspects. According to Romeo (2017), the development is also associated with an increase in stress-related psychological abnormalities such as depression and anxiety. This period is characterized by significant brain development marked by alteration of the structure in limbic regions, as well as other regions of the brain. Neuroimaging studies have been conducted to explore the alteration of the brain structure in these regions. However, little is known about the changes in the brain in non-human animals. In human and non-human animals, there isn’t enough data to explain the effects of chronic stress on brain development or the other areas affected by such kind of stress. The structural-functional relationship of the nervous system is very crucial. As a result, it is essential, to understand the effects associated with normative and stress-induced alterations during the adolescence, more so towards psychological functions (Romeo, 2017). Understanding this aspect would enable give room to the modification of the development of the neurons at a later stage in future, with the goals of facilitating the effective and needed growth and proper brain development.

From the above points, one can conclude that the article describes the effects of the stress on the development of the brain. The study also seeks to identify and explores the areas of the brain that are sensitive to stress during adolescence periods. The above article also focuses on specific regions of the brain that include amygdala development as well as the formation of hippocampal (Romeo, 2017). This is the regions that are affected by stress the most.  Therefore one can conclude that the article, attempts to explore the deeper understanding of the regions of the brain that are affected by stress during the adolescence, and its impacts.


How the article related to the week topic

The normative, as well as non-normative events, enables the understanding of stress and changes affect the quality of life. The article, therefore, enables understanding of the regions of the brains, especially during the adolescence that is affected by stress. This is important in exploring how the quality of life at adolescence period and later at adult life is affected by stress.

The second article: Article summary and key points

In the United States, over one million pregnancy are lost during the gestation period. The rate of pregnancy loss among the black women is more prevalent in comparison to Hispanic and white women (Peoples et al., 2014). According to these authors, the risk factors that lead to fetal deaths during the gestation period are related to the modifiable factors associated with stress during pregnancy. The physical damage associated with stress is recognized or known for cardiovascular or behavioral health conditions. However, stressful events from day to day life as well as stress associated with the pregnancy, gender discrimination, social, economic factors, racial discrimination on the birth outcome is not explored (Peoples et al., 2014). Consequently, it becomes the responsibility of the child educators to educate pregnant women on how to manage various types of stress to ensure optimal outcome during birth. The prospect of giving birth after carrying a pregnancy for nine months can be the most rewarding experience during the life of a woman.

Stress is a major factor that inhibits the ability of the women to carry out a successful pregnancy. Stressed women, release hormones and other substance that interferes with the normal growth and development of the fetus. For example, women have required taking folic acid during the first three months to ensure proper neural plate folding. The folding is key in ensuring proper brain development of the fetus(Thompson, & Al-Hasan, 2012). Due to economic status, stresses women are not able to take the folic acid and therefore, inhibit proper development of the fetus.

How the article relates to the week topic

The topic of the week leans towards understanding how normative and non-normative events enable the understanding of stress and the impact on quality of life. The article explores the stress associated with pregnant women, and how it can interfere with the normal development of the fetus. Understanding the effects of this factor is important since child educators can provide the needed education to pregnant women. This is more so on how to manage stress for optimal outcome during birth.


Peoples, M., Thrower, A., &Danawi, H. (2014). Exploring the Impact of Stress on Pregnancy Loss. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 29(3).

Romeo, R. (2017). The impact of stress on the structure of the adolescent brain: Implications for adolescent mental health. Brain Research, 1654, 185-191.

Thompson, L., & Al-Hasan, Y. (2012). Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming. Journal Of Pregnancy, 2012, 1-8.




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