Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases


A report by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) has indicated that the number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were at an unprecedented high. Among the highest cases of reported sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. as of 2015 include the following:


People diagnosed with Chlamydia present with a burning sensation during urination, abdominal or pelvic pain. C. Trachomatis is the cause of the infection.  Chlamydia cases could also have blood in their urine and experience an increased urgency to pass urine (CDC, 2016). In women, however, the condition could be asymptomatic, or the symptoms could mimic those of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). Techniques in Cell Culture, immunologic assays, and probes of DNA and enzyme sensitive tests are used in the diagnosis of Chlamydia. The infection is treated by oral administration of either Azithromycin 1g in a single dose or Doxycycline 100mg two times a day for seven days (“2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”, 2016). Several sequelae could arise from the disease among women the most severe being PID. Ectopic pregnancies and infertility could also result if Chlamydia is not treated (Forhan et al., 2009).


Gonorrhea causes individuals to have the following symptoms: a burning sensation during urination, male patients may have a whitish, green or yellow discharge from their penises. It is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.A less common feature of this STD is developing painful and inflamed testicles. In women, there could be vaginal discharges or bleeding between periods. Rectal infections present with a sore feeling, discharge, bleeding and painful bowel movements. Anal, oral or vaginal swabs are collected for culture and sensitivity tests to conduct a diagnostic test depending on the type of sex the client had.  Gonorrhea is treated using Ceftriaxone 250mg intramuscularly in one dose or one dose of Azithromycin 1g orally. A dual therapy of the two drugs should be administered on the same day (“2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”, 2016). If left untreated gonorrhea could result in PID in women, ectopic pregnancy or infertility. Arthritis and dermatitis may follow bacteremia (Forhan et al., 2009).


Individuals may present with a painless lesion on the penis known as a chancre in the initial stages. A rash on the trunk may then develop in subsequent stages of syphilis. The infective agent is called Treponema pallidum (CDC, 2016). Other general signs of infection may be fever, malaise, and loss of hair, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and arthritis. The condition can be diagnosed through non-treponemal tests like VDRL and treponemal tests like fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption tests (FBA-ATS). Syphilis is treated using Penicillin G, in all stages of the infection. The treatment is administered in the form of Benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units intramuscularly in one dose (“2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”, 2016). Left untreated, syphilis could complicate to neurosyphilis, aortitis, psychosis, stroke or meningitis (Verma, Kumar Meena, & Banerjee, 2015).


Patients here present with inguinal lymphadenopathy, genital ulcers or buboes. The infective pathogen is Haemophilus ducreyi. Culture and sensitivity tests are used to diagnose Chancroid. The disease is treated using Azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose or ceftriaxone 250 mg intramuscularly in one dose. Ciprofloxacin 500mg orally BD for three days or Erythromycin 500mg TID for seven days are alternative treatment regimen (“2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”, 2016). Complications include rupture of the large inguinal abscesses to form ulcers, phimosis, extensive adenitis or superinfection (Verma, Kumar Meena, & Banerjee, 2015).

Human papillomavirus

The infection is caused by the virus and transmitted sexually. In most cases, it is asymptomatic but could cause genital warts or cancers like cervical carcinoma in women (CDC, 2016). The HPV infection can be diagnosed through Pap smear tests or vinegar solution tests. Treatment for HPV infection includes an initial dose of HPV vaccine at twelve years of age. Subclinical HPV infection clears spontaneously, so antiviral therapy is not indicated (“2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”, 2016). The infection could complicate To Cervical cancer.


Management of the patients with STDs based on EBP will aim at increasing the knowledge of the patients about their STD and others. The managements should also focus on preventing the spread of the disease.  The nurse should also concentrate on reducing the patients’ anxiety about the condition. The patient and the partner should receive teaching on the same and compliance on treatment should be adhered to so as to avoid any complications arising.




2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. (2016). Retrieved 10 December 2016, from

CDC,. (2016). Retrieved 10 December 2016, from 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. (2016). Retrieved 10 December 2016, from

Forhan, S., Gottlieb, S., Sternberg, M., Xu, F., Datta, S., & McQuillan, G. et al. (2009). Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Adolescents Aged 14 to 19 in the United States.PEDIATRICS124(6), 1505-1512.

Verma, A., Kumar Meena, J., & Banerjee, B. (2015). A Comparative Study of Prevalence of RTI/STI Symptoms and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among the Married Women in Urban and Rural Areas of Delhi. International Journal Of Reproductive Medicine2015, 1-8.