Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Secondary prevention focuses on the reduction of the impact of a disease or injury which has already occurred in a particular setup. To achieve this, the diseases are identified and treated early enough to prevent complication (Smith, 2016). At the same time, personal strategies are utilized to prevent recurrence or re-injury. Similarly, the interventions also entails implementing multiple programs that would get the population affected by their initial or near-normal status this preventing long-term existence.
In this case, the vulnerable population consists of older adults at risk of and suffering from dementia. The secondary prevention will include regular checkups and examinations for individuals presenting with various symptoms of dementia as well as social support from the significant others to enable the affected older persons to engage in various activities (Smith, 2016).
Planning Before Teaching
|Name and Credentials of Teacher:
|Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: 30 minutes||Location of Teaching: Community social hall.
|Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: visual aids, LCD, laptop, pointers
|Estimated Cost: $500
|Community and Target Aggregate:
Community and the demented patients
|Topic: secondary prevention/screening for a vulnerable population in relation to dementia.|
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic
Various interventions, initiatives, and programs concerning screening for dementia should take care of all the individuals who are vulnerable to the condition. This group entails all the geriatrics of the age above 65 years of age. All the factors that relate to the access of the screening services are of significance for this stage of prevention. It is also crucial to note that dementia has a preclinical phase that has a myriad of psychiatric, cognitive, behavioral and sub-cortical symptoms. These symptoms overlap with normal aging making the secondary prevention relatively problematic.
The nursing diagnosis entails health-seeking behavior for early determination of the condition and adherence to the plans of management to prevent the development of disabilities. The activities include initiating community-based services for the demented, conducting a routine assessment of the elderly presenting with various cognitive symptoms and educating family members on the management and assistance to the demented patients.
Readiness for Learning: In the teaching process, the readiness to learn is a critical part in achieving the objectives and the goals that would see secondary prevention attained. To connect with the audience emotionally and in experiential way, the nurse has to be realistic and use examples that the audience can understand. Factors that indicate readiness to learn would include positive mood towards getting to know various measures for secondary prevention, the curiosity of the audience to the topic as well as group learning that indicates a support subsystem that would facilitate the process.
Learning Theory to be utilized
Social cognitive theory will be utilized as it imparts knowledge via observation. It is based on the fact that individuals can learn by observing others. Learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a change of behavior and can occur over some period rather than immediately. The learning process can be impacted by punishment and reinforcement (Illeris, 2018). In this case, the learning will be geared towards the demonstration of behaviors of a demented person and discuss various methods and practices that can be used in the management. Through these processes, both the patients and the caregivers can emulate the illustrated activities to improve the functionality of the patients. For example, through demonstration of the use of the calendar to ensure orientation of the demented patient, the patients, and the significant others can apply such moves in their homes to improve the memory and orientation of their patient.
The goals of secondary prevention coinciding with the healthy people 2020 encompasses of:
- Attaining high-quality life that is free of disability and premature death.
- To improve the health of all groups including the geriatrics.
iii. Promoting quality of health and healthy behaviors across all the stage of life.
How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives
By improving the health of all groups including the geriatrics, the healthy people 2020 goals are in line with the first and the second Alma Ata declaration that considers mental wellbeing to be a fundamental right to all persons. It also covers the need for equity in the provision of healthcare services without any consideration or discrimination (Maurer & Smith, 2013). The objectives are also in line with the public healthcare determined by the declaration which entails handling various healthcare problems in the community such as dementia to ensure a healthy population.
Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods
|The audience will be able to describe the impact of dementia on a geriatrics life. (Cognitive)
|· Explain various predisposing factors to dementia.
· Explain the influence of dementia on the behavior of an individual.
|Supplying the knowledge on dementia, its origin and predisposing factors as well as the influence on individuals’ life through discussions with the audience thus promoting their participation in learning.|
|The audience will be able to demonstrate various strategies and ways that can be used to determine cases of dementia as well as the methods employed to manage the condition. (Psychomotor)
|· Demonstrate the various identification means for diagnosing the condition.
· Demonstrate various methods that can be employed at home to accommodate the demented individuals to thus ensuring their safety during management.
|· Playing a video via LCD to indicate the behavior of a demented patient and allowing the audience to determine various symptoms of the disease.
· Using charts together with the LCD to illustrate the interventions of the caregivers towards managing patients with dementia in fostering the secondary prevention.
· Explanations and discussions with the patients on the role of secondary prevention in the process of determining and prevention of complications and disability from dementia.
|The audience to express the need to identify and manage dementia within the community. (Affective)
|· Significance of identifying demented individuals as well as providing supportive services to them in enhancing their management.||· Visual aids indicating an identified case of dementia that is being managed at home.
· Pictures of undiagnosed patients with dementia and the results of their situation.
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population Creativity
There are various teaching strategies that can employ creativity to enhance passage of the intended message to the audience at all times. The creativity can come in the form of fluency, flexibility in addressing various issues and being unique concerning appearance as well as the visual aids used. These aspects make the audience to coordinate the content provided against what is expected of them in see secondary prevention is achieved.
Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation)
1) The objective of enabling the audience to determine the impact of dementia on individual and community members will be evaluated on their ability to list and mention various issues that surround dementia to affect the geriatrics.
2) In demonstrating various ways to determine and manage dementia, the evaluation will be based on the observation of the community members seeking assistance on suspected cases of dementia of their loved older members of the family.
3) In determining the expression of the need to assist in determining and assisting the geriatrics with dementia will be determined by observing the day to day activities that then leads to inquiries concerning the condition. At the same time, the community members will work towards determining more information concerning the disease.
Planned Evaluation of Goal
The teaching plan can be evaluated by determining the learning and knowledge status of the patients and the audience in general before and after the teaching. The effectiveness of the teaching will impart knowledge in them as well as increasing their move to determine the demented patients and assisting them to operate in their midst with assistance.
Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation)
Evaluation forms the final step in the teaching process to determine its impact on the learning process. Through this process, the identification of what the audience has been taught can be made.
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population Barriers
One of the potential barriers is time constraints that may come about due to the amount of information to be passed (Gillespie, 2014). For subsequent sessions, sufficient time ought to be allocated as well as providing concise information during the presentation. Disruption may also come about in the process of teaching which may require a focus on the topic and guide the audience to remain focused.
In setting the stage, I will start with a scenario that is related to dementia to create curiosity to the learners. Besides, the application of eye contact will be able to build trust and ensure focus through the entire period (Kurtz, Draper & Silverman, 2016). I will also use tonal variation to indicate the end of the lesson at the point of providing a summary of the topic handled.
Gillespie, H. (2014). Unlocking learning and teaching with ICT: Identifying and overcoming
Illeris, K. (Ed.). (2018). Contemporary theories of learning: learning theorists… in their own
Kurtz, S., Draper, J., & Silverman, J. (2016). Teaching and learning communication skills in
medicine. CRC press.
Maurer, F. A., & Smith, C. M. (2013). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for
families and populations. Elsevier Health Sciences.
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