Title, Journal Name, Year of publication Type of Study Research Question or Hypothesis Study Methodology  Level of the Evidence Description of subjects and sample size Major findings from the study

Age and Cancer Risk; A Potentially Modifiable Relationship, PubMed. 2014

Systematic review on the modifiable risk factors for the middle aged individuals before cancer incidence This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer The researcher collected and systematically research articles on risk factors for cancer among the aged individuals. Level V: The review analyzed several articles that were relevant to the research question Current research suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. On the contrary, the prevention or at least delay of cancer occurrence can be viewed as an effective strategy for achieving a healthy, long life. By applying the available scientific evidence to promote cancer prevention at midlife, it should be possible to substantially modify the relationship between age and cancer risk (White et al., 2014).

Community-based Interventions to Improve Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: Results of the Forsyth County Cancer Screening (FoCaS) Project. American Association of Cancer Research (AACR) Publications, 20 14.


Cross-sectional Survey on women Cervical and breast cancer screening increase among the women aged 40 years and above. The researcher screened women 40 years and above. Level 3 The sample size comprised of 548 women The study found out that an intervention with multiple faces could improve the rates of screening among the low income populations (Dignan, Michielutte, Wells, & Bahnson, 2014).
3. Older adults’ views of successful aging- How do they compare with researchers views? Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 2013 Cross-sectional survey Have older adults thought about aging and aging successfully  and how do their perceptions on successful aging compare with researcher’s views The study mailed questionnaires to two cohorts  and asked them their perceptions about successful aging Level 4 The sample composed two cohort groups; 1985 Japanese Americans over 65 years old and 2581 white males and females over 65 years. The study revealed that the older adults’ definition of successful aging had multiple dimensions that encompassed physical, psychological and functional aspects. These findings contrasted the published work (Phelan, Anderson, Lacroix, & Larson, 2013).
4. Cancer screening and aging: Research barriers and opportunities. Cancer, 2012 Systematic review What are the barriers to and opportunities for cancer screening among older men and women The study reviewed relevant articles Level 5 Articles were reviewed by the researcher There has been limited improvement in testing of evidence based theory based  approaches to support screening (Sheinfeld Gorin, Gauthier, Hay, Miles, & Wardle, 2012)
5. Systematic review of incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease 2015, Geriatric journal Systematic review Incidence studies are vital for both epidemiological research and health care planning in parkinsonism Original articles that described the incidence of PD were located using several strategies Level 4 The methods were summarized and the results of the studies with similar methodologies were compared on a standardized population The review highlighted the difficulties in performing good quality incidence studies on Parkinson’s disease  (PD) (Twelves, Perkins, & Counsell, 2015)
6. Determinants of a healthy lifestyle and use of preventive medicine in Canada. BioMed Central Public Health, 2016 Survey Is there an association  between  individual characteristics such as education and income with healthy behaviours and utilization of preventive medicine Data from the NPHS was used. Logistic models of regression were developed for each dependent variable. Level 3 A cross sectional sample was of people born after 1994 was selected Disparities in healthy behaviours and health promotion continue to exist despite equal access to medical screening in Canada (Qi, Phillips, & Hopman, 2016).





Dignan, M., Michielutte, R., Wells, H., & Bahnson, J. (2014). The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project—I. Cervical Cancer screening for black women. Health Education Research,9(4), 411-420.

Phelan, E., Anderson, L., Lacroix, A., & Larson, E. (2013). Older Adults’ Views of “Successful Aging”—How Do They Compare with Researchers’ Definitions?. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society52(2), 211-216.

Qi, V., Phillips, S., & Hopman, W. (2016). Determinants of a healthy lifestyle and use of preventive screening in Canada. BMC Public Health6(1).

Sheinfeld Gorin, S., Gauthier, J., Hay, J., Miles, A., & Wardle, J. (2012). Cancer screening and aging: Research barriers and opportunities. Cancer113(S12), 3493-3504.

Twelves, D., Perkins, K., & Counsell, C. (2015). Systematic review of incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders18(1), 19-31.

White, M., Holman, D., Boehm, J., Peipins, L., Grossman, M., & Jane Henley, S. (2014). Age and Cancer Risk. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine46(3), S7-S15.