Nursing metaparadigms: nursing, health, the person, and the world

Nursing metaparadigms: nursing, health, the person, and the world
Many thinkers in nursing say that caring is the one thing that sets it apart from other health care jobs. Caring for another person means having the will, values, commitment, and understanding to help the patient when they need it. The idea of caring is strongly ingrained in the nursing metaparadigms, which describe how the nursing field should work. All of these ideas about the person, health, the surroundings, and nursing point to a holistic view of how all nurses should care for their patients. Even though all nurses give care based on the four ideas, each person’s care is guided by their own personal philosophy, which includes their values, ethics, and beliefs. The point of this discussion is to show that you understand the nursing metaparadigm, how my personal philosophy fits with the nursing idea of caring, and how you can use theoretical nursing work to meet professional standards.

Nursing Metaparadigm

The nursing metaparadigm defines the limits of the nursing field, which sets it apart from other fields like medicine, sociology, and psychology. Fawcett came up with the nursing metaparadigm in 1984. It is made up of four ideas: the person, the world, health, and nursing. (Alligood, 2018a, p. 41). The patient, their families, caregivers, and neighborhoods are all part of the person components. They all work together to care for the patient. (Bender & Feldman, 2015). The care framework is set up so that the person’s spiritual and social needs, which are important to their healing, are taken into account. The environment is thought of as both the actual place where health care is given and the important people who make it possible for care to be given. The nurse should make sure the patient is in an environment that helps him or her get better. Health is a moving process that shows how a person feels when they are healthy or sick. The last part is nursing, which involves the patient and nurse working together in ways that are thoughtful, social, knowledgeable, and build relationships that help the patient heal.

Philosophy of Life

Person/Human Being

The person part of the nursing metaparadigm focuses on the person getting care, as well as the person’s family and other important groups. I think that strong ties with other people give patients the power to take care of their own health. Because their health depends on other people, nurses must include the patient’s family and other important people in their care. People are important and deserve to be treated with care, respect, and understanding when they need help. They also have the right to make choices based on what they know. When nursing is based on the person paradigm, I have learned that respect and understanding are important parts of giving care. My idea of respect hasn’t changed because I’ve always thought that nursing care should be based on what the patient wants. The final goal is to give patients the tools they need to take care of themselves. One thing I think has changed about me as a caregiver is how much I respect and involve the patient’s family in the care process. I’ve learned that families are part of the person model and that caring for them is the same as caring for the patient.


The environment is the scenery and geography of how people live together. It includes more than just the air, water, and land that the patient is surrounded by. It also includes things like society, values, beliefs, customs, and expectations. This course has helped me learn more about the environment model of nursing and changed how I looked at it before. At first, I focused most of my nursing care on making sure the patient was in a clean, safe, and comfortable setting. I didn’t pay much attention to how culture and beliefs affect the healing process. In my first paper, I talked about how the values of empathy, kindness, and trust should guide how I give nursing care. I’ve learned that showing kindness and trust aren’t the only ways to make a patient feel at ease. Respecting the patient’s views, building caring relationships with the patient, and figuring out what the patient wants can help a lot with healing.

Every nurse should do their best to encourage the interaction between the patient and the surroundings. This class has given me a broader view of how patients connect with their surroundings, especially with other people and with technology. In my first paper, I talked about how good speaking and listening are important parts of how I give nursing care. I’ve learned that good communication and better ties should be made not only with the nurse but also with the family members. Social ties are important for healing because when a patient is released from the hospital, he or she goes back to live with his or her family. As I said in my first paper, the most important thing during care giving is to have relationships that people can trust. Also, the importance of being honest makes relationships even stronger when care is being given and helps people share information.


The health part of the four metaparadigms is about how well a patient is, how sick they are, and how easy it is for them to get health care. Health means being able to take care of yourself and deal with the stresses of life. I think of health as the interaction between a person’s physical body and their inner soul or mind. This interaction determines how healthy a person is. Wellness also depends on how much care a person gets from their family and other people, care that fits their needs and standards. People’s health can be affected by things they can’t change, like their genes. Compassion, honesty, and empathy are some of my personal beliefs that are in line with the health paradigm. I don’t think what I’ve learned in this class has changed how I feel about people’s health. For example, in health promotion, the nurse’s job is to help the patient meet their physiological, esteem, safety, and connection needs and give them some advice on how to reach their full potential.

In the health paradigm, illness is a sign of loss or dysfunction that needs to be fixed by caring interactions. I think that being honest is a good quality that can help people get better and meet their own goals. No matter how hard it is, I always try to make sure the patient knows how bad their health is and what the expected result is. Then, I’ll help the patient deal with reality by giving them nursing care and getting help from other fields for their mental and spiritual needs. But I think I should put more effort into helping the patient meet these needs by giving them the tools they need or finding other ways for them to do so.


Nursing is both a field of study and a profession. It includes giving care by building relationships with patients in a safe environment. This model describes the job and the skills, knowledge, technology, and partnerships that are needed to help patients do better. I think that this part works with the other three parts to make care that is unique to the job and to the patient. I’ve already talked about how my nursing practice is based on trust, honesty, ethics, compassion, empathy, good communication, and respect for the patient. I feel like I understand the above values even better now that I’ve taken this course because I know what a nurse needs to do. Nurses work on their own and use their authority to give patients more power through caring relationships. I now understand how working together across professions can help improve communication and care for patients. I never used to think that collaborative practice could add much to nursing care, but now I’m happy to say that the patient is the main focus and nurses should do their best to make things better.

Work in the classroom

The idea chosen for this discussion is “Health as an Expanding Consciousness” by Margret Newman. This idea came from a desire to help people whose health cannot be measured by the lack of disease or disability. (Stec, 2016). Martha Rogers’s theory of unitary human beings is the basis for Newman’s theory. This theory says that a person’s health is a unitary phenomenon, a pattern that changes over time in the human world. Health is seen as a developing unitary pattern of the whole, which includes disease patterns. Consciousness, on the other hand, is the unstructured ability of the whole, which is shown in the evolving pattern. (Alligood, 2018b, p. 77). The theory looks for a pattern that best describes the patient and should change as the patient continues to interact with the world. Sometimes the pattern changes in a way that makes the patient do well even though they have a disease, and sometimes the pattern changes in a way that causes chaos. These interactions lead to the growth of awareness, and it’s important to understand the pattern in order to treat diseases. The nursing metaparadigms are expanded upon in the following ways by Newman’s theory.

Newman gives a different definition of the health paradigm because it includes people who think that sickness is a part of health. In this theory, health and sickness are combined to make health, which is the combination of one state of being (disease) and its opposite (not being sick). (Stec, 2016). Health is a single thing that includes both health and illness, so the focus is on reaching a higher level of awareness instead of dealing with illness. Newman’s idea goes against the point of nursing, which is to care for the sick. Since illness is a part of health, nurses don’t seem to have much to do with bringing things back into balance.

Instead of focusing on treating the disease, Newman’s idea of health promotion is to help people reach a better level of awareness. Maybe this idea only works for a small number of people who can deal well with illness, accident, or physical flaws. It’s a little different from my nursing philosophy about empathy, ethics, and honesty. The nurse should feel sorry for the sick person and try to ease his or her pain. I think that focusing on higher-level awareness can’t make suffering go away, even if it helps people understand themselves better. Second, when I look at the patient, I need to feel like I’ve done my best through nursing care and working with other people to improve health. Newman says that nurses should help people use their own power to reach a higher level of awareness, but I think there are more values that can be used to improve health.


Nursing is the care that is given to people when they are at war with their health. Nursing is seen as a partnership between the nurse and the client, and both grow in the “sense of higher levels of consciousness.” (Stec, 2016). The nurse is in charge of getting the patient to recognize patterns so that they can reach higher states of consciousness. In this theory, the main nursing action is a caring partnership that helps build a relationship between the patient and the nurse. This connection is deepened and used to make sense of what the patient has been through.

My current beliefs are in line with Newman’s idea about the nursing paradigm and how nursing care is given. First, in my last work, I talked about how important good communication and listening are for improving the health of patients. The idea seems to support these values by having nurses and patients work together and build strong relationships. Also, the idea is in line with the value of treating the patient with respect while giving care, which is at the heart of building strong relationships.


Newman thinks of the person paradigm as a single thing that can’t be broken up into parts and is part of the bigger single field. She says that the person is awareness and the center of that consciousness. (Alligood, 2018b, p. 81). People should be handled as a whole, but nurses should know the dynamic processes and patterns that lead to a positive view of health.

Newman’s person paradigm of nursing, which puts the patient at the center, fits with the beliefs I have now. Showing empathy, faith, integrity, and honesty are all ways to help patients feel better and get better. Newman’s theory says that to reach a higher level of awareness, you have to put all of your attention on the patient, which is what my personal values show.


The patient’s world is a universe of open systems that interact with the patient and is an important part of nursing care. It has very abstract open power and energy systems that show up as feelings, thoughts, and other things that can be seen. (Stec, 2016). This theory says that the surroundings is a major factor in how things like body temperature, diet, blood pressure, and rest affect the body. The main goal of nursing care is to change the person’s surroundings in order to improve their health. Newman’s description of the setting fits with my values and beliefs about treating patients with respect and making sure we talk to each other well. Respecting the patient makes it possible for the patient’s mental and social needs to be met. On the other hand, good communication makes sure that the patient gets the best care and that health-improving measures happen at the right time.

Competencies and behavior rules for CNOs

Discussion of Competencies

Registered nurses are meant to coordinate the delivery of healthcare services at the point of care with the patient, the healthcare team, and other groups to make sure that safe healthcare services are delivered continuously. CNO competency 5.1 says that the nurse must talk to clients and other members of the health care team to make changes as needed due to changes in the availability of services or the health state of the client. (CNO, 2019b, p. 7). Newman’s theory, which says that the nurse must work with the client to help them reach a higher level of awareness, backs up this competency. To get this skill, I will work closely with patients and their families to make daily care plans and do regular assessments to see what needs to be fixed. (Fujiwara & Endo, 2017).

The second thing I’ll try to do is meet competency 5.6, which is about the nurse’s job as a coordinator. Nurses should help clients figure out how to use health care systems and other service sectors to improve their health and well-being. (CNO, 2019b, p. 7). The environment model emphasizes how important it is to meet all of the patient’s needs, including social needs that are important for health. I will meet this skill by helping patients build strong relationships with their families and by letting patients’ families be part of the care team.

Telling people what to do

Newman talks about the environment paradigm in nursing, which is made up of a world of open systems that work together to affect people’s health. Under the behavioral directives for maintaining commitments to quality practice settings, nurses are supposed to constantly review the workplace environment to find ways to improve the quality of care. (CNO, 2019g, p. 13). I will try to meet this standard by regularly looking at the hospital’s HCAHPS scores and figuring out which places aren’t doing well. One of the professional rules of nursing practice that keeps patients from getting hurt is to work to improve their health. Nurses are supposed to keep up the therapeutic nurse-client relationship while working to improve the health of their patients. This is a key part of Newman’s nursing model. (CNO, 2019g, p. 6). I will show how to keep a therapeutic connection going by showing empathy, being honest, and having integrity. Fujiwara and Endo (2017) also say that good ties between the patient and the nurse can be made by using good communication techniques and involving the patient’s family in the care of the patient.


Nursing metaparadigms, which include nursing, health, the person, and the world, lay out how the field of nursing should work. Several nursing theories back up these paradigms and explain more about how nurses should handle and use each part. One of these ideas is Newman’s theory of health as an expanding consciousness and caring partnership, which tells nurses how to help people stay healthy as they change. When using theoretical approaches to practice safe nursing, nurses must show their professionalism by meeting needed competencies, standards of practice, and ethical rules.


Alligood, M. R. (2018a). Theories and grand theories. In P. Emeritus (EDd 9),       Nursing theorists and their work-e-book(pp. 41-). North Carolina: Elsevier        Health Sciences. Retrieved from

Alligood, M. R. (2018b). Middle-range theories. In P. Emeritus (EDd 9), Nursing theorists and their work-e-book(pp. 41-). North Carolina: Elsevier Health        Sciences. Retrieved from

Bender, M., & Feldman, M. S. (2015). A practice theory approach to understanding the interdependency of nursing practice and the environment. Advances in Nursing Science38(2), 96-109. DOI: 10.1097/ANS.0000000000000068

College of Nurses of Ontario. (2019b). Entry-to-practice competencies for registered nurses. Toronto, ON: Author. Retrieved from

College of Nurses of Ontario. (2019g). Practice standard: Ethics. Toronto, ON:      Author. Retrieved from

Fujiwara, Y., & Endo, E. (2017). A patient with cancer and her family in caring partnership based on Margaret Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness. Asia-Pacific Journal of        Oncology     Nursing4(3), 265. DOI: 10.4103/apjon.apjon_20_17

Stec, M. W. (2016). Health as expanding consciousness: Clinical reasoning in baccalaureate nursing students. Nursing Science Quarterly29(1), 54-61.

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