Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders
Inflammation Bowel Disease (IBD) involves the digestive tract inflammation. The condition involves the Crohns and ulcerative disease. The condition involves severe form of weight loss, fatigue, pain and diarrhea (MayoClinic, 2017). The disease can lead to a life threatening condition. In ulcerative colitis, the inflammation affects the large intestines but in Crohn disease, the inflammation affect the entire digestive system. On the other hand, Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) is an auto immune disorders in which the immune system of the host attacks the normal cells of the body (MedlinePlus, 2017). In SLE, the immune system affects the organs of the body such as brain, the kidney and the joints.
Pathophysiology of Inflammation Bowel Disease (IBD) and Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)
The body immune system plays an important role in fighting the invading pathogens. The immune system can be categorized into two groups, the innate a well as the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system is composed of barriers that prevent the entry of the pathogenic microorganism as well as phagocytic cells (Nhs.uk, 2017). Examples of barriers include the skin and the phagocytic cells include the macrophages. One of the major difference between the innate and adaptive immune system is the specificity. In adaptive immune system, antibodies against the invading pathogen are produced by the specialized B-cells when the antigen are presented to the B-cells by the antigen presenting cells such as the dendritic cells and the macrophages. Click here to see a custom concept of brain disorders paper.Sometimes, the immune system may attack the normal cells of the body causing the auto immune disorders. In IBD, the immune system attacks the GTI causing the inflammation. This may occur when the GTI is infected or when it is not infected and the inflammation may remain there for several months or years. When the immune system attack organs such as kidney and the liver, the condition is referred to as systemic lupus erythematous.
The difference in maladaptive and physiological responses of IBD and SLE
Both the IBD and SLE are chronic autoimmune diseases that are characterized by periods of remission and episodes of flare-ups. The two diseases association is rare. In frequent cases, the diagnosis of SLE compared to IBD occurs first (Shizuma, 2012). The IBD normally belongs to the US subtypes. The diagnosis of the first disease is almost is almost never active compared to the manifestation of the second disease. Patents who have developed both forms of the complications tends to have no neurological disorders, less serositis and less photosensitivity in comparison with patients who have developed SLE alone. The anti-ds DNA is frequent on all the patients who tends to have idiopathic IBD and SLE (Shizuma, 2012). Physician needs to consider the fact that, patents may develop both of the complication in a simultaneous manner. Click here to see a custom paper on Learners with emotional and behavioral disorders.
How genetics of an individuals might impact the pathophysiology IBD & SLE
SLE in a complex genetic illness generally. In SLE several examples of mutations that are capable of producing monogenetic forms of the disease are available. The deficiency of the early compliment component such as C1q, C4 and C2 leads to 90%, 10% and 75% of all the cases (Scofield, 2015). In IBD, individual inherits a mutation that causes inability to recognize the normal tissues of the GTI. The GTI is therefore attacked by immune system reading to inflammation (Loddo & Romano, 2015).
Loddo, I., & Romano, C. (2015). Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Genetics, Epigenetics, and Pathogenesis. Frontiers in Immunology, 6. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00551
MayoClinic. (2017). Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Tests and diagnosis – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/inflammatory-bowel-disease/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20034908
MedlinePlus. (2017). Systemic lupus erythematosus: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000435.htm
Nhs.uk. (2017). Inflammatory bowel disease – NHS Choices. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Inflammatory-bowel-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx
Scofield, R. H. (2015). Genetics of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Overview, Clinical Implications, Post-GWAS SLE Genetics. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1884084-overview#a2
Shizuma, T. (2012). Coexistence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Internal Medicine: Open Access, 04(02). doi:10.4172/2165-8048.1000140