Global Warming: Fact or Fiction

Global Warming: Fact or Fiction

Introduction

Global warming refers to the rise in the temperatures in the earth’s atmosphere mainly attributed to carbon dioxide emissions among other air pollutants, it is a valid phenomenon, and intervention is inevitable. These pollutants trap the sun’s heat causing the earth to warm up. Global warming has become a contentious debate, with scientists trying to ascertain, though without substantial evidence, the underlying factors that lead to the phenomenon. The phenomenon comes with varied effects which range from positive to negative. However, even as facts about global warming have become a common knowledge, the phenomenon is confronted with myriad fictions. This paper identifies some of the facts and fiction about global warming.

The proponents’ side of the argument on concept of global warming greatly ascribes to three schools of thought that also reflect my theses: first, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is most reliable to give information about the phenomenon is correct about the facts it presents on global warming as a valid phenomenon. Secondly, CO­2 is a principle cause of global warming and the argument against this may be misleading. Thirdly, the ice levels at the Poles are not increasing, but receding due to global warming and melting.

The Pro Argument

Even though the ideas presented to contest the phenomenon of global warming may seem quit convincing, many of these constructs are filled with fallacies, and may only be described as misleading. For instance, it would be very misleading to state that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is too politicized to accurately reflect the true ideas of the scientific fraternity. The undertakings of the IPCC are backed by the global scientific community. According to a joint statement issued in 2001 by the science academies from Belgium , Australia, brazil, Canada, china, New Zealand, Germany, France, Caribbean, Ireland, Italy, India, Indonesia, the UK, Sweden, and Malaysia, the IPCC has been recognized as world’s most reliable information regarding change of climate and its causes; this is arguably the best method of getting a consensus (IPCC 67). In 2001, the US national academy for sciences would be commissioned by the bush administration to assess the status of the global climatic change. In its report, it indicated that the IPCC’s conclusion that the observed warming over the last fifty years may be attributed to the accumulation of greenhouse gases accurately reflected the idea of the academy. This shows that unlike the opponents’ notion that the IPCC was a politicized system that would not reflect the status of the scientific community may be misguided and of place (IPCC 67).

The other misleading argument would be the idea that the earth is getting colder. This idea that greenhouse gases, particularly CO2 may not be responsible for the observed increase in global temperatures. The fact of the matter is that about half of the solar energy penetrates the atmosphere to reach the earth’s surface where it gets absorbed (The Royal Society, 2004).

A great part of the solar energy is retained by the Earth’s surface and afterward discharged as infra-red radiation, some of which is assimilated by greenhouse gases, for example, water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane. The greenhouse gases act as a cover over the surface of the Earth, keeping it around 20 centigrade degrees hotter than it overall might be, which is a sensation reputed to be ‘the greenhouse impact’ (The Royal Society, 2004).

 

Expands in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere improve the greenhouse impact and, on normal, prompt further warming. It has been as far back as anyone can remember made that carbon dioxide positively assimilates infra-red radiation. The IPCC 2001 report brought up that carbon dioxide is “the predominant human-affected greenhouse gas”, and is answerable for more than half the warming because of progressions in climatic fixations (Ibid).

 

In view of immediate dissection of gases discovered trapped in centers of polar ice, it is realized that the environmental amassing of carbon dioxide for a few many prior years 1750 was in the vicinity of 280 parts for every million. Between 1750 and 2000, throughout which industrialization has happened, the fixation climbed by in the ballpark of 31% to 368 parts for every million. The IPCC report noted that the present amassing of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has not been surpassed throughout the previous 420,000 years and that “the rate of expansion over the previous century is uncommon, at any rate throughout the previous 20,000 years”. It has been guaranteed that the ascent in climatic concentration of carbon dioxide is really a result of environmental change, as opposed to a reason. The IPCC report called attention to that compound breakdowns of the carbon dioxide indicate that the increment in the atmosphere, and a going with abatement in oxygen focuses, are fundamentally because of the blazing of fossil powers and deforestation (Ibid).

 

In spite of the fact that some carbon dioxide consumed and discharged by oceans or land, it focused on that the normal rate of expansion in focuses in the atmosphere since 1980 has been in the vicinity of 0.4% for every year and that this is because of discharges. It expressed “Most of the discharges throughout the previous 20 years are because of fossil fuel copying, the rest (10 to 30%) is transcendently because of land-utilization change, particularly deforestation”. Various different components are known to impact atmosphere and cause change, especially volcanic ejections, varieties in the energy from the sun and particles discharged into the atmosphere from both characteristic sources and human exercises. Particles in the atmosphere decrease the measure of energy from the sun that achieves the Earth’s surface, and thusly cause a cooling impact. The IPCC has concentrated on proof of progressions in these different variables and their conceivable impact on the worldwide normal temperature. It discovered that the varieties over the twentieth century can just be comprehended by considering all variables, both common and human. Land use changes, for example, the spread or shrinkage of backwoods regions can likewise help changes in temperature. The misfortune of backwoods can push a cooling impact by expanding the reflectivity of the land surface, which implies lower measures of solar radiation are assimilated (Dincer 34). The IPCC 2001 report noted that the general impact of land utilize changes since preindustrial times has been to handle reason cooling, and that this has fundamentally been because of the trade at high scopes of snow-secured backwoods by open, snow-secured regions. The report noted that the level of comprehension of the generally speaking impact of land utilization changes was lower than for different components influencing worldwide temperatures (Dincer 35).

 

The IPCC discovered that the overwhelming impacts on environmental change in the early part of the twentieth century were liable to be a little build in solar yield and a decline in normal volcanic movement. Then again, such regular variables can’t demonstrate the warming in the last 50% of the twentieth century, and the IPCC presumed that there is “new and stronger confirm that the majority of the warming watched throughout the most recent 50 years may be attributed to human activities”. The report called attention to those regular calculates on their own might have prepared a generally drop in worldwide (The Royal Society, 2004).

The other misleading argument refers to the construct that the ice at the poles may not be melting but getting thicker. As to this issue, the IPCC 2001 report showed that in 2000 Arctic ice had diminished generally by 40% in the late summer and early fall (with 66 to 90% conviction) in the previous not many decades, and diminished in degree by 10 to 15% since the 1950s in the spring and summer. There has likewise been a boundless withdraw of non-polar icy masses. Nonetheless, there was no exhibited change in the generally speaking degree of Antarctic sea ice between 1978 and 2000. The models reported by the IPCC indicated that ice sheets might proceed to withdraw with ascents in worldwide normal temperatures. The report recognized the multifaceted nature of projections, noting that “the Antarctic ice sheet is liable to addition mass in view of more amazing precipitation, while the Greenland ice sheet is prone to lose mass since the increment in spillover will surpass the precipitation build.” Looking further into what’s to come, bigger washes in the ice bed covers might start to happen. The IPCC 2001 report additionally cautioned that a neighborhood normal warming by 3 centigrade degrees might lead, in excess of a thousand years, to “essentially a complete liquefying of the Greenland ice sheet with a coming about sea level ascent of in the vicinity of 7 m”. The report likewise cautioned that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet might begin to split if temperatures proceed to rise (The Royal Society 06).

 

A later paper by Shepherd and others distributed in the journal Science in 2003, proposed that the Larsen Ice Shelf in Antarctica has started to break-up over an extremely brief time because of a managed time of diminishing of the ice. They presumed that “upgraded sea driven liquefying may furnish a basic connection between territorial atmosphere warming and the progressive deterioration of areas of the Larsen Ice shelf (The Royal Society 11).

 

Opposing Argument

The concept of global warming has been confronted with a myriad of criticism, with some scientists arguing that it might not be a true principle, while others contend that the phenomenon has been exaggerated significantly. Some critics have touted the (IPCC) claiming that it has become politicized and may not reflect the varied range of views in the scientific fraternity. A study by Stephen Schwartz from Brookhaven National Lab has concluded that the earth may only be about one-third as sensitive to CO2 as the IPCC may assume. The results of the study indicated 63% lower than the estimate by the IPCC that report 30 C for doubling of Carbon Dioxide. Currently, the world is almost 41% above the approximated pre-industrial Carbon Dioxide levels of 270ppm. With the current rate of increase in carbon dioxide at 0.55%, the CO2 levels are expected to double by 2070. Schwartz explains that we would anticipate a 0.6o C temperature increase between now and 2070 which is not alarming. This goes against the IPCC stand that the world may experience a 0.6 0 C increase in temperature along the 21st century even if the accumulation of greenhouse gases is stopped. Schwartz argues that his new study falls in line with Al Galore’s assertion that there may not be a legitimate scholarly alternative to a climatic catastrophe. He concludes with a question, would these changes be noticed by mainstream media (IPCC 67).

The fictitious notion of global warming phenomenon has also been supported by the new finding that some parts in the Arctic Circles and the Southern Hemisphere may be cooling, contrary to the universal idea that the global temperatures are cooling.  Dr. Madhav L. Khandekar, a UN scientist, in 2007 explained that the southern hemisphere was cooling. He noted that the land temperature was slowly but steadily declining in the previous couple of years. He noted that Buenos Aires in Argentina would receive a few centimeters of snow recently whereas the last record of snow in the city was in 1918. He further explained that many parts of Australia had experienced the coldest months that year. He said that several other regions in the southern hemisphere had experienced their coldest months in the recent past. Furthermore, the sea surface temperatures over the oceans had been decreasing from mid-1998.  When the idea that the world temperatures had been noted to decline, the scientists from Britain failed to accept that the whole global warming phenomenon was a farce, instead, the claimed that the real manifestation would not start until 2009. Further articulation of this notion may be the progressive growth of ice in Antarctic Circle. The argument posits that while the media has always focused on the lowest ice levels in the Arctic Circle since 1979, the Southern Hemisphere has recorded the highest ice level since 1979.  The studies conclude that Antarctica might not be following the forecasted global warming models as orchestrated by the decrease temperatures over the 20th century and increase in the ice levels over the century (Houghton 65).

On another account, claims have been established that carbon dioxide may not play a major role in warming the globe. A Belgian weather institute in 2007 refuted the decisive role of CO2 in global warming. They noted that carbon dioxide would was not the great bogeyman of global warming and climate change. This was a conclusion of a scientific study conducted by the Royal Meteorological Institute. The study never stated that CO2 could not create a warming effect on the earth, however, the fact that “it would not play a decisive role that is usually attached to It.” the scientists indicated that water vapor was the greatest greenhouse gas.  They claimed that moisture was responsible for over 75% of all the greenhouse effect. They purport that the movie by Al Galore hyped the effect of CO2 so that everyone believes is the principle cause of global warming (Houghton 66). Further criticism suggests that CO2 was not the main reason for the end of the ice age. They purport those deep seas temperatures increased 1300 years before the atmospheric CO2. This ruled out CO2 ­­as a determinant of the meltdown. They note that the increase in CO2 would have been as a result of the warming and would have facilitated the meltdown, but it was not the key determinant (Crawford & Davoudi 66).

Personal Evaluation

Is Global warming unsafe for us? I might say yes it is. Global Warming has initiated and is bringing about extreme harm everywhere throughout the United States like in the decimating out of control bonfires that began in Denver, Co because of amazingly hot climate over the focal part of its nation, in spite of the fact that climatologist assert they can’t appear to uncover these flames being straightforwardly joined to global warming. An alternate hurtful issue with global warming is the reason for extreme sand and tidy storms as the strike on Phoenix. Researchers anticipated that Global Warming will carry more loathsome tidy storms over the globe and additionally the expansion in atmosphere is adjusting and decimating defensive vegetation notwithstanding exchanging fatal diseases crosswise over starting with one area then onto the next.

Efforts to Stop Global Warming

Could Global Warming be halted? The response to that is no, yet there are things that might be carried out to help chop down Global Warming. A few things might be to lessen the measure of contamination processed via cars and trucks, which is the place the Hybrids become possibly the most important factor. Cross breeds were made particularly to help chop down contamination and a few carmakers are planning cars to be less fuel proficient. An alternate path perhaps to cut the contamination hailing from force plants while not diminishing power, which is the reason we see a considerable measure of items that are energy proficient which helps eliminate gases bringing on carbon dioxide (Crawford & Davoudi 67).

In 2007 and after years of much research and examining on global change, previous Vice President Al Gore revealed that we might confront an “accurate planetary crisis” unless there could be quick discharges decreases and there was an ideal opportunity to manage the progressions in atmosphere. In vouching for the House of Representatives/congress, previous Vice President Gore prompted legislators to cut carbon dioxide, greenhouse gases and boycott new coal smoldering power plants that aren’t equipped to control or catch the gases. Despite the fact that previous Republican House Speaker Dennis Hastert concurred with Gore that the civil argument on environmental change was over, he felt that a ton of Gore’s proposals were built increasingly in light of regulation controls and tariff. Not at all like Hastert, previous executive of the House energy panel Rep. Joe Barton, addressed the experimental confirmation exhibited by Gore and felt that cutting carbon dioxide emanations would just “give profit at an immense cost” further expressing that global warming science was uneven and rotating (Leroux 87).

Despite the fact that confronted with blended gathering, this didn’t prevent Gore from making and demonstrating his focus and later winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 and having made a broader and educated accord about the association between human exercises and global warming. Blood won an Academy Award for his documentary on global warming, “An Inconvenient Truth” (Yamaguchi 143).

Conclusion

Taking everything into account, researchers will never consent to the circumstances and end results of global warming, however they dependably concur that the atmosphere has progressions, is changing and will proceed to change sometime later without having robust proof of the reason(s) behind those variations. As evident in the paper, it is clear that even though the ideas presented to contest the phenomenon of global warming may seem quit convincing, many of these constructs is filled with fallacies, and may only be described as misleading. For instance, it would be very misleading to state that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is too politicized to accurately reflect the true ideas of the scientific fraternity. Secondly it has proved to be quit a fiction to state that CO2­ ­­­­ is not a principle source of global warming when thousands of scientists argue for the fact. The paper has also proved that although opponents indicate that the earth might be cooling and ice accumulating in the Polar Regions, the fact is that the earth is warming and weather changes are evident. Therefore, I strongly support the proponents’ argument that global warming is a valid phenomenon that needs mitigation. ­­­

 

Works Cited

Crawford, Jenny, and Davoudi, Simin. Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation     and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Dinçer, İbrahim. Global Warming: Engineering Solutions. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010. Print.

Houghton, J. T. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge      University, 2004. Print.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2001. Third Assessment Report.      Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001

Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth or Reality: the Erring Ways of Climatology. Berlin:           Springer, 2005. Print.

The Royal Society. A guide to facts and fictions about climate change. Journal of Geophysical     Research, volume 109, (2004): 01- 14

Yamaguchi, Mitsutsune. Climate Change Mitigation: A Balanced Approach to Climate Change.   London: Springer, 2012. Print.

 

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