Discussion: Examining Endocrine, Metabolic, and Hematologic Disorders
In the United States, 25.6 million adults age 20 years or older have diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2011). If not properly treated and managed, these millions of diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness.
Proper treatment and management is the key for diabetic patients, and as the advanced practice nurse providing care for these patients, it is your responsibility to facilitate this process. Patient education is critical, as is working with patients to establish a regular pattern for daily activities such as eating and taking medications. When developing care plans for patients, you must keep the projected outcomes of treatment in mind, as well as patient preferences and other factors that might impact adherence to treatment and management plans. In this Discussion, you draw from your Practicum Experience and consider factors that impact the education and treatment of patients with diabetes.
For this Discussion, consider the following three case studies of patients presenting with endocrine, metabolic, and hematological disorders.
Case Study 1
An 82-year-old female presents to the office complaining of fatigue, dizziness, weakness, and increasing dyspnea on exertion. She has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Medications include warfarin 2 milligrams po daily, lisinopril 10 milligrams po daily, and simvastatin 10 milligrams po daily. There are no known drug allergies. The physical exam reveals a 5’2” older female. Her weight is 128 pounds, blood pressure is 144/80, heart rate is 98, temperature is 98 degrees Fahrenheit, and O2 saturation is 98%. Further examination reveals the following:
Eyes: + pallor conjunctiva
Cardiac: irregular rhythm. No S3 S4 or M. NO JVD
Lungs: CTA w/o rales, wheezes, or rhonchi
Abdomen: soft, BS +, + epigastric tenderness. No organomegaly, rebound, or guarding
Rectal: no stool in rectal vault
Case Study 2
A 78-year-old female presents to the emergency room after a fall 3 days ago. She recently had a right above-the-knee amputation and was leaning over to pick something up when she fell. She did not want to come to the hospital, but she is having difficulty managing at home because of the pain in her left leg where she fell. Her patient medical history reveals RAKA, peripheral vascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Current medications include quinapril 20 milligrams PO daily, Lantus 30 units at bedtime, and Humalog to scale before meals. There are no known drug allergies. The physical exam is negative and x-rays reveal no acute injuries. Laboratory studies reveal a normal white blood cell count: Hgb of 8 and HCT 24. The MCV is normal.
Case Study 3
V.G. is a 47 year old African American male with type 2 diabetes diagnosed two years ago. He is for a follow up and complaining of increased tingling to the lower extremities. PMH: obesity, dyslipidemia, HTN. He quit smoking smoking two years ago. Denies any alcohol use. SH: lives with alone in a subsidized housing. He is a veteran and relies on food stamps and welfare. Works occasionally. MEDS: he lost his medications and hasn’t taken any in about a week. His chart indicates his is on Lisinopril 20mg, Januvia 50mg QD, Lipitor 40mg QD, PE: 5’9, BP: 160/100 RBG: 415.
Review Part 17 and 21 of the Buttaro et al. text in this week’s Resources.
You will either select or be assigned to a patient case study for this Discussion.
Review the patient case study and reflect on the information provided about the patient.
Think about the personal, medical, and family history you need to obtain from the patient in the case study. Reflect on what questions you might ask during an evaluation.
Consider types of physical exams and diagnostics that might be appropriate for evaluation of the patient in the study.
Reflect on a possible diagnosis for the patient.
Think about potential treatment options for the patient.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the \”Post to Discussion Question\” link and then select \”Create Thread\” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
By Day 3
Post a an explanation of the primary diagnosis, as well as 3 differential diagnoses, for the patient in the case study that you selected or were assigned. Describe the role the patient history and physical exam played in the diagnosis. Then, suggest potential treatment options based on your patient diagnosis.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses