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Question: To protect themselves against infection. Similar results were found in studies of intravenous dru…


to protect themselves against infection. Similar results were found in studies of intravenous drug populations and partners of HIV-infected individuals (Biasin et al., 2000: Makedonas et al. z002: Lo et al. 2003: John ct al., 2004). Interestingly. it seems that repcated exposure is required for this form of immunity and that it is reduced when uninfected individuals reduce the frequency of their risky behavior (Kaul et al., 2001b: Yang et al., 2002). Question 2. This mechanism of protection against HIV seems to rely on continued exposure to maintain the immunity. However, the mechanisms causing the protection are not well understood and despite relative immunity these people could still be infected. What would you recommend to a person engaged in high risk activity that appears to exhibit protection against HIV-1? What leads you to make these recommendations? Super B Cells and Antibodies? The bodys first line of defense against HIV are the antibodies secreted in the mucosal surfaces (mouth vagina, urethra). HIV-specific antibodies have been isolated in the mucus of resistant individuals engaged in oral, vaginal, or anal sex with HIV-infected individuals ( Hirbod ct al..2008: Hasselrot et al. 200g). Control sabjects did not produce this antibody response in their secretions. These antibodies appear to recognize and inactivate HIV virus in a test tube. Whether these antibodies help protect the uninfected individuals is an active area of stud Questions 3. A recent article in a populat science magazine (Wallace. 2009) reported on the study that uninfected partners of HlV-infected men who practice oral sex have higher levels of HIV-specific antibodies in their saliva. The title and subtitle of the articles were: HIV resistance through oral sex: A new study suggests that repeated exposure can help produce resistant antibodies. Discuss the accuracy of this ritle. Does it represent whats known about this field of investigation appropriately? Why or why not? What sort of effects might this title have in our society 4 In biology the terms resistance and immunity have different meanings. Resistance is a existing mutation in an organism that confers protection against a threat or challenge such as a virus. Resistance is used in the same manner as antibjotic-resistance in bacteria. Immunity refers to an active response of the immune system to the challenge of foreign particles that confers protection upon the organism. You have investigated many forms of protcctions against HIV. Which of these constiture resistance and which of them constitute immunity References Aimali afe (0o3) HV and te Carcepeon, Dapt of Microbiology and Immunolongy, Honors Buolog Alimonti, J.B., Limani. J. Matu. L. Wachihi, C., Kaul. R.. Plummer, E.A., et al. (2006). Characterization Biasin, M. Caputo, S.L. Speciale, L.. Columbo. F. Racioppi. 1.. .Zagliani. A., et al. (3000). Mucosal and 18i at The University of Arizona. http://student biologyarizona.edu/honorszooz/groupog/homeog,html Accessed: 25 November 2009 of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1 exposed seronegative commercial sex workers fro Nairobi, Kenya. immunology Cell Biology 84(5): 482-48s Resistance Is Futile... or Is Ir hy Annie Pradhomme-Généreux Pape t

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to protect themselves against infection. Similar results were found in studies of intravenous drug populations and partners of HIV-infected individuals (Biasin et al., 2000: Makedonas et al. z002: Lo et al. 2003: John ct al., 2004). Interestingly. it seems that repcated exposure is required for this form of immunity and that it is reduced when uninfected individuals reduce the frequency of their risky behavior (Kaul et al., 2001b: Yang et al., 2002). Question 2. This mechanism of protection against HIV seems to rely on continued exposure to maintain the immunity. However, the mechanisms causing the protection are not well understood and despite relative immunity these people could still be infected. What would you recommend to a person engaged in high risk activity that appears to exhibit protection against HIV-1? What leads you to make these recommendations? Super B Cells and Antibodies? The body's first line of defense against HIV are the antibodies secreted in the mucosal surfaces (mouth vagina, urethra). HIV-specific antibodies have been isolated in the mucus of resistant individuals engaged in oral, vaginal, or anal sex with HIV-infected individuals ( Hirbod ct al..2008: Hasselrot et al. 200g). Control sabjects did not produce this antibody response in their secretions. These antibodies appear to recognize and inactivate HIV virus in a test tube. Whether these antibodies help protect the uninfected individuals is an active area of stud Questions 3. A recent article in a populat science magazine (Wallace. 2009) reported on the study that uninfected partners of HlV-infected men who practice oral sex have higher levels of HIV-specific antibodies in their saliva. The title and subtitle of the articles were: "HIV resistance through oral sex: A new study suggests that repeated exposure can help produce resistant antibodies." Discuss the accuracy of this ritle. Does it represent what's known about this field of investigation appropriately? Why or why not? What sort of effects might this title have in our society 4 In biology the terms "resistance" and "immunity" have different meanings. Resistance is a existing mutation in an organism that confers protection against a threat or challenge such as a virus. Resistance" is used in the same manner as antibjotic-resistance" in bacteria. "Immunity" refers to an active response of the immune system to the challenge of foreign particles that confers protection upon the organism. You have investigated many forms of protcctions against HIV. Which of these constiture resistance and which of them constitute immunity References Aimali afe (0o3) HV and te Carcepeon, Dapt of Microbiology and Immunolongy, Honors Buolog Alimonti, J.B., Limani. J. Matu. L. Wachihi, C., Kaul. R.. Plummer, E.A., et al. (2006). Characterization Biasin, M. Caputo, S.L. Speciale, L.. Columbo. F. Racioppi. 1.. .Zagliani. A., et al. (3000). Mucosal and 18i at The University of Arizona. http://student biologyarizona.edu/honorszooz/groupog/homeog,html Accessed: 25 November 2009 of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1 exposed seronegative commercial sex workers fro Nairobi, Kenya. immunology Cell Biology 84(5): 482-48s Resistance Is Futile… or Is Ir" hy Annie Prad'homme-Généreux Pape t

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